Cranial anatomy of the gorgonopsian Cynariops robustus based on CT-reconstruction

  title={Cranial anatomy of the gorgonopsian Cynariops robustus based on CT-reconstruction},
  author={Eva-Maria Bendel and Christian F. Kammerer and Nikolay Kardjilov and Vincent Fernandez and J{\"o}rg Fr{\"o}bisch},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
Gorgonopsia is one of the major clades of non-mammalian synapsids, and includes an array of large-bodied carnivores that were the top terrestrial predators of the late Permian. Most research on the clade has focused on these largest members; small-bodied gorgonopsians are relatively little-studied. Here, we redescribe a small gorgonopsian skull (MB.R.999) from the late Permian (Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone) of South Africa on the basis of neutron and synchrotron CT reconstructions, which yield… 
Cranial anatomy of Bolotridon frerensis, an enigmatic cynodont from the Middle Triassic of South Africa, and its phylogenetic significance
A computed tomographic reconstruction of BSPG 1934-VIII-7 represents by far the most extensive specimen of B. frerensis, providing novel information on its palatal and internal anatomy and recovering Bolotridon as the sister-taxon of Eucynodontia.
A Basal Nonmammaliaform Cynodont from the Permian of Zambia and the Origins of Mammalian Endocranial and Postcranial Anatomy
The occurrence of Nshimbodon indicates that charassognathids, like the basal cynodont Procynosuchus, were geographically widespread in southern Pangea by Lopingian times and provides evidence of correlated transformations in the feeding system, neck, and shoulder, which are consistent with novel mammal-like locomotor and feeding mechanics in the earliest Cynodonts.
Novel Endocranial Data on the Early Therocephalian Lycosuchus vanderrieti Underpin High Character Variability in Early Theriodont Evolution
A redescription of the skull of the early therocephalian Lycosuchus based on a specimen from the middle Permian Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo Basin provides new insights into patterns of tooth replacement in lycosuchids, which have proven controversial for this taxon.
Virtual reconstruction of cranial endocasts of traversodontid cynodonts (Eucynodontia: Gomphodontia) from the upper Triassic of Southern Brazil
The brain endocasts of the late Triassic traversodontids Siriusgnathus niemeyerorum and Exaeretodon riograndensis from southern Brazil are described based on virtual models generated using computed tomography scan data, showing an endocranial cavity that is not fully ossified.
Endocranial morphology of the Brazilian Permian dicynodont Rastodon procurvidens (Therapsida: Anomodontia)
The presence of uncompressed maxillary recesses in R. procurvidens indicates a correlation between the enlargement of the recesses and the reduction of the tusk, also seen in other dicynodonts with reduced tusks.
Neurosensory anatomy of Varanopidae and its implications for early synapsid evolution
Computed tomography data reveal that the neuroanatomy of pelycosaur‐grade synapsids is far more complex than previously anticipated, and reconstructed neurosensory anatomy indicates that varanopids may have a much lower‐frequency hearing range compared to more derivedsynapsids.
Convergent dental adaptations in the serrations of hypercarnivorous synapsids and dinosaurs
The same denticles and interdental folds form the cutting edges in the teeth of a Permian gorgonopsian synapsid, extending the temporal and phylogenetic distribution of this dental morphology and demonstrating that the first iteration of this feature appeared in non-mammalian synapsids.
Morphological evolution in therocephalians breaks the hypercarnivore ratchet
  • N. Brocklehurst
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B
  • 2019
Analysis of the ancestral therocephalian was a large macro-predator, with serrated teeth, elongated canines and robust lower jaws, and it is suggested that the hypercarnivore ratchet is a feature of mammalian evolution.
The Evolution of the Maxillary Canal in Probainognathia (Cynodontia, Synapsida): Reassessment of the Homology of the Infraorbital Foramen in Mammalian Ancestors
This study finds that the mammalian condition is the result of a gradual shortening of the maxillary canal, which enabled the infraorbital nerve to ramify within the soft tissues of the face.
Palaeoneurology and palaeobiology of the dinocephalian therapsid Anteosaurus magnificus
2021. Palaeoneurology and palaeobiology of the dinocephalian therapsid Anteosaurus magnificus. Acta 66 (X): xxx–xxx. Dinocephalians (Therapsida), some of the earliest amniotes to have evolved large


Cranial osteology of Arctognathus curvimola, a short‐snouted gorgonopsian from the Late Permian of South Africa
The South African gorgonopsian species Arctognathus curvimola is redescribed based on a well-preserved skull and Autapomorphies identified for A. curvimola include a characteristic curvature to the alveolar margin of the snout, extremely reduced lacrimal, lengthy upper postcanine tooth row and a unique vomerine morphology.
Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida
Procrustes analysis of the two best-preserved specimens of these species allowed recognition of further shape differences: M. oligocynus has a taller but narrower cranium, taller snout, temporal opening more expanded laterally, pterygoid process located more anteriorly, and smaller suborbital vacuity.
A Redescription of Eriphostoma microdon Broom, 1911 (Therapsida, Gorgonopsia) from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of South Africa and a Review of Middle Permian Gorgonopsians
The problematic Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ) theriodont Eriphostoma microdon Broom, 1911 is redescribed based on computed tomographic images of the type and only known specimen. Eriphostoma is
Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New Emydopoid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique
A new dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from northern Mozambique is described and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography (SRµCT) combined with a phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a set of characters shared with Emydopoidea.
New information on the morphology and stratigraphic range of the mid‐Permian gorgonopsian Eriphostoma microdon Broom, 1911
New specimens of the oldest gorgonopsian taxon Eriphostoma microdon from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone (AZ) of South Africa significantly improve the understanding of the anatomy of this taxon and permits Eoarctops vanderbyli, Galesuchus gracilis, and Scylacognathu parvus to be synonymized with EriPHostoma, as previously suspected.
Comparative Basicranial Anatomy of Extant Terrestrial and Semiaquatic Artiodactyla
  • M. O'Leary
  • Biology
    Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
  • 2016
Exemplar species from the four major extant terrestrial and semiaquatic artiodactyla clades are described and the anatomy of the ear region with the auditory bulla both in place and removed and the basicranium is illustrated.
Aspects of gorgonopsian paleobiology and evolution: insights from the basicranium, occiput, osseous labyrinth, vasculature, and neuroanatomy
The anatomy of the osseous labyrinth is rendered in detail, revealing a unique discoid morphology of the horizontal semicircular canal, rather than toroidal, probably due to architectural constraints of the ossification of the opisthotic and supraoccipital.
Study of a skull attributed to Lycaenops angusticeps reveals the presence of a ventral flange of the jugal that supports the transverse flanges of the pterygoid, which may have been selected for improved hearing of air-borne sounds.
Endothiodon cf. bathystoma (Synapsida: Dicynodontia) bony labyrinth anatomy, variation and body mass estimates
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the
On the cranial anatomy of some gorgonopsids and the synapsid middle ear.
It is concluded that the deflected articular process present among synapsid reptiles generally was a true retroarticular process, giving attachment to a depressor mandibuli muscle, and that its ventral deflection was a modification to permit the wide gape necessary in forms having large canine teeth.