Cranial Kinesis in Dinosaurs: Intracranial Joints, Protractor Muscles, and Their Significance for Cranial Evolution and Function in Diapsids

@inproceedings{Holliday2008CranialKI,
  title={Cranial Kinesis in Dinosaurs: Intracranial Joints, Protractor Muscles, and Their Significance for Cranial Evolution and Function in Diapsids},
  author={Casey M Holliday and Lawrence M. Witmer},
  year={2008}
}
Abstract Different forms of intracranial mobility, including streptostyly, pleurokinesis, and prokinesis, have been postulated for many dinosaurs. The basis for inferring kinesis typically has included the presence of presumably synovial intracranial joints (otic and basal joints) and various ad hoc 'sliding joints' (many without modern parallels), whereas the protractor musculature that would have powered movement at these joints has received little attention. No study has reviewed the… 
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