Cox-2 Selective Inhibitors and Bone

@article{Goodman2003Cox2SI,
  title={Cox-2 Selective Inhibitors and Bone},
  author={Stuart B. Goodman and Ting Ma and Mark C. Genovese and R. Lane Smith},
  journal={International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology},
  year={2003},
  volume={16},
  pages={201 - 205}
}
  • S. Goodman, T. Ma, +1 author R. L. Smith
  • Published 1 September 2003
  • Medicine
  • International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed medications for relief of pain and inflammation. Recent animal studies using models of fracture healing and bone ingrowth suggest that NSAIDs (both non-selective NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors) adversely affect these bone-related processes. The dose and time-relationships of these medications and their resulting effects on bone have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, whether COX-2 inhibitors and non-selective… 
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EP1−/− Mice Have Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Accelerated Fracture Repair
  • Minjie Zhang, H. Ho, +6 authors R. O’Keefe
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • 2011
TLDR
It is shown that unlike the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4, the EP1 receptor is a negative regulator that acts at multiple stages of the fracture healing process, and inhibition of EP1 signaling is a potential means to enhance fracture healing.
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References

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TLDR
The potential clinical benefit of COX-2 inhibitors is significant due to the number of patients chronically treated with NSAIDs and the three- to ten-fold higher risk of gastrointestinal injury and death associated with traditional NSAIDs.
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Introduction: Numerous studies have demonstrated that administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) results in delayed healing and decreased strength of post -fracture bone
COX-2 inhibitors
COX-2 INHIBITOR INHIBITS ONLY EARLY PHASE OF FRACTURE HEALING
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Introduction: Recently, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) specific inhibitors have been reported to inhibit fracture healing. One possible hypothesis proposed for the delayed healing is that cox-2 inhibitors
COX‐2 selective NSAID decreases bone ingrowth in vivo
  • S. Goodman, T. Ma, +7 authors R. Smith
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • 2002
TLDR
It is suggested that bone formation is suppressed by oral administration of an NSAID which contains a COX‐2 inhibitor, which currently taken for arthritis and other conditions may potentially delay fracture healing and bone ingrowth.
The Effect of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors on Spinal Fusion
TLDR
The results suggest that celecoxib does not significantly inhibit the rate of spinal fusion in rabbits and suggest that the inhibitory effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on bone-healing are likely mediated by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and that Celecoxib is the better choice if treatment with nonsteroid anti- inflammatory drugs is deemed necessary following spinal arthrodesis.
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TLDR
The observations indicate that fetal bone development and fracture healing are different and that COX‐2 function is specifically essential for fracture healing, and confirms that the effects of COX-2‐selective NSAIDs on fracture healing is caused by inhibition of COx‐2 activity and not from a drug side effect.
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that, while indomethacin is effective in decreasing the formation of heterotopic bone, piroxicam--when used in the dosage previously demonstrated to have no deleterious effect on healing bone--is not and any potential benefit from using piroXicam, as opposed to other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs regarding fracture healing and bone remodeling, cannot be applied.
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