Cow's milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

Abstract

Insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) often appear as the first sign of islet cell autoimmunity in prediabetic children. Because cow's milk contains bovine insulin, we followed the development of insulin-binding antibodies in children fed with cow's milk formula. Bovine insulin- and human insulin-binding antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and IAA by radioimmunoassay… (More)

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