Covert Communication in Laboratories, Classrooms, and the Truly Real World

  title={Covert Communication in Laboratories, Classrooms, and the Truly Real World},
  author={Robert W. Rosenthal},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={151 - 154}
  • R. Rosenthal
  • Published 1 October 2003
  • Psychology
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science
Hundreds of research studies have demonstrated that one person's expectations for the behavior of another person can actually affect that other person's behavior. These studies implicate the operation of processes of covert communication, communication that is subtle, largely nonverbal, and ordinarily unintended. The earliest studies of these processes showed that through their expectations, laboratory researchers unwittingly affected the responses of their research participants. Later studies… 
N onverbal behavior is arguably one of the most powerful methods of communication; it conveys important information about a person’s likes and dislikes, emotions, personal characteristics, and
A consequence of school grade labels: preservice teachers’ interpretations and recall of children’s classroom behavior
This study investigated whether preservice teachers’ attitudes surrounding school grade labels influenced interpretations and recall of children’s classroom behavior using the automatic attitude
Implicit attitudes in language learning
The field of language motivation is almost 60 years old. Throughout these decades, one idea has been persistent: Motivation is assumed to be a conscious process on which the learner can exert direct
Administrator effects on respondent choice
Research concerning administrator effects and the wider field of experimenter expectancy effects (Rosenthal, 1976) has established the theory that the hypotheses and knowledge held by an
‘Believe in me, and I will too’: a study of how teachers’ expectations instilled confidence in Grade 10 students
Teacher expectation research has continued to establish an association between what teachers expect of their students and what students accomplish academically. These expectations affect students
Why call someone by what we don't want them to be? The ethics of labeling in forensic/correctional psychology
ABSTRACT Labeling a person by their past behavior or a criminal conviction is commonplace throughout forensic and correctional psychology. Labels including ‘offender’ and ‘sex offender’ infiltrate
Pygmalion at 50: harnessing its power and application in schooling
ABSTRACT This special issue marks the 50th anniversary of the landmark Pygmalion experiment (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). It offers contributions from across the globe, attesting to universal
Relative Influences of Personal Psychological Factors on Conversational Interpretation and Behavior
• Subjective ratings of conversational anxiety or defensiveness about having left a potentially negative impression versus opposite of both • Asked to consider each, as well as fear of being judged
Self-fulfilling Prophecies: Mechanisms, Power, and Links to Social Problems
A core theme of social psychology is that perceivers can shape targets’ future behaviors through self-fulfilling prophecies. Self-fulfilling prophecies occur when perceivers’ false beliefs about
Can Lineup Administrators Blind to the Suspect's Identity Influence Witnesses’ Decisions?
  • Nicole A. McCallum, N. Brewer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychiatry, psychology, and law : an interdisciplinary journal of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
  • 2018
It is argued that different blind lineup administrators should be used for each witness to a crime, because a lineup administrator who is blind to the suspect's identity may bias a witness's decision if he or she has previously administered the lineup to another witness to the same crime.


Covert communication in classrooms, clinics, courtrooms, and cubicles.
  • R. Rosenthal
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American psychologist
  • 2002
The author considers the social importance of the magnitudes of the obtained effects and points out research still needed to clarify issues in the mediation of these effects.
Reducing the biasing effects of judges' nonverbal behavior with simplified jury instruction.
This research hypothesized that using simpler jury instructions would reduce jurors' reliance on judges' nonverbal behavior. Mock jurors were given either standard or simplified jury instructions,
Interpersonal expectancy effects: the first 345 studies
The research area of interpersonal expectancy effects originally derived from a general consideration of the effects of experimenters on the results of their research. One of these is the expectancy
Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness.
The accuracy of strangers' consensual judgments of personality based on "thin slices" of targets' nonverbal behavior were examined in relation to an ecologically valid criterion variable. In the 1st
The Pygmalion Effect and its Mediating Mechanisms
Publisher Summary This chapter deals with the Pygmalion effect in children. It presents case studies to highlight the signs and symptoms of this effect, highlighting the uniformity of effects
Surgeons' tone of voice: a clue to malpractice history.
This is the first study to show clear associations between communication and malpractice in surgeons, and specific types of affect associated with claims can be judged from brief audio clips, suggesting that this method might be useful in training surgeons.
The courts, legal practitioners, scholars, and social scientists have longrecognized that judges' behavior, both verbal and nonverbal, may have importanteffects on trial processes and outcomes. For
Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences: A meta-analysis.
A meta-analysis was conducted on the accuracy of predictions of various objective outcomes in the areas of social and clinical psychology from short observations of expressive behavior (under 5 min).
Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A 30-Year Perspective:
In the mid 1950s, the results of my doctoral dissertation were nearly ruined; it appeared that I might have treated my experimental subjects in such a way as to lead them to respond in accordance
Pygmalion in the Classroom
In 1965 the authors conducted an experiment in a public elementary school, telling teachers that certain children could be expected to be “growth spurters,” based on the students' results on the