Coupling cell movement to multicellular development in myxobacteria

  title={Coupling cell movement to multicellular development in myxobacteria},
  author={Dale Kaiser},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  • D. Kaiser
  • Published 1 October 2003
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology
The myxobacteria are Gram-negative organisms that are capable of multicellular, social behaviour. In the presence of nutrients, swarms of myxobacteria feed cooperatively by sharing extracellular digestive enzymes, and can prey on other bacteria. When the food supply runs low, they initiate a complex developmental programme that culminates in the production of a fruiting body. Myxobacteria move by gliding and have two, polarly positioned engines to control their motility. The two engines undergo… 

Modelling the development of myxobacterial fruiting bodies

Myxobacteria show a complex developmental cycle, which culminates in the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies, and the mechanisms and regulation of this process are tried by means of computational models.

Signaling in myxobacteria.

  • D. Kaiser
  • Biology
    Annual review of microbiology
  • 2004
Traveling waves, streams, and sporulation have increasing thresholds for C-signal activity, and this progression ensures that spores form inside fruiting bodies.

The Dynamics of Myxobacteria Life Cycle

The off-lattice model is developed to simulate the life cycle of Myxococcus xanthus and the Dynamic Energy Budget model is used as a trigger mechanism for cell growth and cell division, and then for switching from the swarming stage to the stage of fruiting body formation.

A New Mechanism for Collective Migration in Myxococcus xanthus

Evidence of a purely mechanical mechanism for collective migration, which is controlled by the cells' length-to-width aspect ratio, is provided by means of numerical simulations of model cell populations where cells interact via volume exclusion.

Myxobacteria: Moving, Killing, Feeding, and Surviving Together

How these social bacteria cooperate and the main cell–cell signaling systems used for communication to maintain multicellularity are reviewed.

From individual cell motility to collective behaviors: insights from a prokaryote, Myxococcus xanthus.

It is suggested that Myxococcus is a powerful system to investigate collective principles that may also be relevant to other cellular systems, including chemotaxis, cell-cell signaling, and the extracellular matrix.

Chemosensory pathways, motility and development in Myxococcus xanthus

The complex life cycle of Myxococcus xanthus includes predation, swarming, fruiting-body formation and sporulation, and at least two of these pathways control gene expression during development.

Dynamics of Fruiting Body Morphogenesis

It is proposed that a model in which both engines stall as the cells' forward progress is blocked by other cells in the traffic jam is eventually circumvented by the cell's capacity to turn, which is facilitated by the push of slime secretion at the rear of each cell and by the flexibility of the myxobacterial cell wall.

Pattern-formation mechanisms in motility mutants of Myxococcus xanthus

It is concluded that unidirectional cell motion induces the formation of large moving clusters at low and intermediate densities, while it results in vortex formation at very high densities.



Cell alignment required in differentiation of Myxococcus xanthus.

It is proposed that directed cell movement establishes critical contacts between adjacent cells, which are required for efficient intercellular C-factor transmission during fruiting body morphogenesis of Myxococcus xanthus.

Developmental sensory transduction in Myxococcus xanthus involves methylation and demethylation of FrzCD

Although M. xanthus is unflagellated, it appears to have a sensory transduction system which is similar in many of its components to those found in flagellation bacteria.

Pattern formation by a cell surface-associated morphogen in Myxococcus xanthus

It is proposed that the C-signal-dependent regulation of the reversal frequency is essential for aggregation and that the remaining C- signal- dependent changes in motility parameters contribute to aggregation by increasing the net-distance traveled by starving cells per minute.

Patterns of cellular interactions during fruiting-body formation in Myxococcus xanthus

Observations imply that complex, organized cell-cell interactions occur during the process of development of the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, and that sporulation commenced during mound formation rather than after the completion of mound morphogenesis.

Genetics of gliding motility in Myxococcus xanthus (Myxobacterales): Genes controlling movement of single cells

Six distinct types of nonmotile mutants are identified and transduction of motility between mutants, mediated by the generalized transducing phage Mx8, identifies the gene loci that underlie the six types.

Cell movement and its coordination in swarms of myxococcus xanthus

Investigation of the mechanism of swarming in Myxococcus xanthus by making time-lapse motion pictures and by measuring the dependence of cell movement and spreading rate on the concentration of cells found that spreading resulted from motility, not growth, and that a swarm spread outward by establishing a loose reticulum of cells, then later filling it in.

Spatial control of cell differentiation in Myxococcus xanthus.

It is proposed that expression of certain genes, including those of the dev operon, is limited to the nascent fruiting body because fruitingBody cells engage in a high level of C-signaling.

The two motility systems of Myxococcus xanthus show different selective advantages on various surfaces.

  • W. ShiD. Zusman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1993
The results suggest that dual motility systems enable the myxobacteria to adapt to a variety of physiological and ecological environments and show similarities in function to the dual Motility systems of flagellated bacteria such as Vibrio spp.

Type IV pili and twitching motility.

  • J. Mattick
  • Biology
    Annual review of microbiology
  • 2002
Twitching motility is a flagella-independent form of bacterial translocation over moist surfaces that is important in host colonization by a wide range of plant and animal pathogens, as well as in the formation of biofilms and fruiting bodies.

Two cell-density domains within the Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body.

  • B. SagerD. Kaiser
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1993
The internal structure of the nascent fruiting body showed it to consist of a hemispherical outer domain of densely packed and ordered cells, and an inner domain of less ordered cells at 3-fold lower cell density.