Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98

  title={Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98},
  author={Peter J. Webster and Andrew M. Moore and Johannes Loschnigg and Robert R. Leben},
Climate variability in the Indian Ocean region seems to be, in some aspects, independent of forcing by external phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. But the extent to which, and how, internal coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics determine the state of the Indian Ocean system have not been resolved. Here we present a detailed analysis of the strong seasonal anomalies in sea surface temperatures, sea surface heights, precipitation and winds that occurred in the Indian Ocean region in… 
Indian Ocean warming of 1997-1998
The Indian Ocean underwent substantial changes in 1997–1998. The observations show not only the appearance of a dipole mode in the tropical region but also a persistent basin-scale warming. We
Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part I: The Role of Remote Forcing from the Tropical Pacific
Abstract A series of experiments are conducted using a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model in regional coupled mode, which permits active air–sea interaction only within the Indian
Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part II: Regional Processes
Abstract To understand the mechanisms of the interannual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean, two long-term simulations are conducted using a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM—one with active air–sea
Indian Ocean variability in the GFDL coupled climate model
The interannual variability of the Indian Ocean, with particular focus on the Indian Ocean dipole/ zonal mode ( IODZM), is investigated in a 250- yr simulation of the GFDL coupled global general
Interannual Variability in an Indian Ocean Basin Model
The behavior of the North Indian Ocean is examined using an intermediate ocean model forced by satellite and numerical model reanalysis data for the period 19841990. It is shown that there is
Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions in a Conceptual Framework
Statistical analysis of observations (including atmospheric reanalysis and forced ocean model simulations) is used to address two questions: First, does an analogous mechanism to that of El
Indian Ocean Variability and Its Association with ENSO in a Global Coupled Model
Abstract The evolution of the Indian Ocean during El Nino–Southern Oscillation is investigated in a 100-yr integration of an Australian Bureau of Meteorology coupled seasonal forecast model. During
Coupled GCM Simulation of Atmosphere-Ocean Variability Associated with Zonally Asymmetric SST Changes in the Tropical Indian Ocean
Abstract The nature of a recurrent pattern of variability in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) during the boreal autumn has been investigated using a 900-yr experiment with a coupled atmosphere–ocean
Indian Ocean Dipolelike Variability in the CSIRO Mark 3 Coupled Climate Model
Abstract Coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropical Indian Ocean is explored with a multicentury integration of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mark


Mechanisms for the Indian Ocean warming during the 1997–98 El Niño
This study examines primary mechanisms that gave rise to the basin‐wide variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean during the 1997–98 El Niño by using multi‐source data sets.
Interannual displacements of convection and surface circulation over the equatorial Indian Ocean
The interannual variability of surface observations in the equatorial Indian Ocean is investigated from 23 years of ship reports (1954-1976). In October and November, during certain years, the
This article examines the time-space evolution of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal in the tropical Atlantic and western Indian Oceans, using harmonic analysis. Composites of sea-surface
Coupled Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Processes and South Asian Monsoon Variability
  • G. Meehl
  • Environmental Science
  • 1994
Results from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model and a model with specified tropical convective heating anomalies show that the South Asian monsoon was an active part of the tropical
The South Asian Monsoon and the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation
A mechanism is described that involves the south Asian monsoon as an active part of the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) described in previous studies. This mechanism depends on coupled
Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction
The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program sought to determine the predictability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global
This is a comprehensive study of the rainfall response over Africa to ENSO episodes in the Pacific. The harmonic method utilized by Ropelewski and Halpert is applied to 90 regionally averaged
Interaction of the Monsoon and Pacific Trade Wind System at Interannual Time Scales Part I: The Equatorial Zone
Abstract The time history of the Monsoon System over the Indian Ocean has been developed from ship observations and merged with the Wyrtki-Meyers Pacific Trade Wind field. The interaction of these
Interannual Variations of Sea Surface Temperature over the Arabian Sea and the Indian Monsoon: A New Perspective
Abstract The interannual variation of surface fields over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are studied using data between 1900 and 1979. It is emphasized that the monthly mean sea surface
Response of the Tropical Atmosphere to Local, Steady Forcing
Abstract A theoretical analysis is made of the large-scale, stationary, zonally asymmetric motions that result from heating and the orographic effect in the tropical atmosphere. The release of latent