Coupled Clouds and Chemistry of the Giant Planets— A Case for Multiprobes

@article{Atreya2005CoupledCA,
  title={Coupled Clouds and Chemistry of the Giant Planets— A Case for Multiprobes},
  author={S. Atreya and A. S. Wong},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
  year={2005},
  volume={116},
  pages={121-136}
}
In seeking to understand the formation of the giant planets and the origin of their atmospheres, the heavy element abundance in well-mixed atmosphere is key. However, clouds come in the way. Thus, composition and condensation are intimately intertwined with the mystery of planetary formation and atmospheric origin. Clouds also provide important clues to dynamical processes in the atmosphere. In this chapter we discuss the thermochemical processes that determine the composition, structure, and… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Neutral Atmospheres of the Giant Planets: An Overview of Composition Measurements
Measurements of the chemical composition of the giant planets provide clues of their formation and evolution processes. According to the currently accepted nucleation model, giant planets formed fromExpand
Oxygen and Other Volatiles in the Giant Planets and their Satellites
Giant planet atmospheric composition and satellite densities provide insights into protoplanetary disk conditions. Abundances of condensable species and noble gases in wellmixed atmospheres canExpand
Three-dimensional modeling of the stratospheres of gas giants
Stratospheres of giant gas planets of the Solar System (Jupiter and Saturn) extend above the cloud top layers near the tropopause to the lower thermosphere, and have a thickness of about 14 densityExpand
MULTIPROBE EXPLORATION OF THE GIANT PLANETS – SHALLOW PROBES
Comparative planetology of the giant planets is key to the origin and evolution of the solar system and, by extension, extrasolar systems. In particular, elemental composition of well-mixedExpand
Atmospheric Planetary Probes and Balloons in the Solar System
A primary motivation for in situ probe and balloon missions in the solar system is to progressively constrain models of its origin and evolution. Specifically, understanding the origin and evolutionExpand
In Situ exploration of the giant planets
Remote sensing observations suffer significant limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. This impacts our knowledge of the formation ofExpand
Convective storms and atmospheric vertical structure in Uranus and Neptune
TLDR
A combination of orbital and in situ data will be required to understand convection and its role in atmospheric dynamics in the ice giants, and by extension, in hydrogen atmospheres including Jupiter, Saturn and giant exoplanets. Expand
The Origin and Evolution of Saturn, with Exoplanet Perspective
Saturn formed beyond the snow line in the primordial solar nebula that made it possible for it to accrete a large mass. Disk instability and core accretion models have been proposed for Saturn'sExpand
Atmospheric Dynamics and Vertical Structure of Uranus and Neptune’s Weather Layers
The Icy Giants Uranus and Neptune have similar rotation periods, large orbital inclinations and intense zonal winds at the visible cloud level. The winds are organized into three broad jets: a zonalExpand
Neptune Polar Orbiter with Probes
The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium; and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Atmospheric and cloud structures of the Jovian planets
Abstract Wet adiabatic atmospheric models are computed for the four Jovian planets. Possible cloud-forming condensates considered are H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, NH4SH, and solid NH3, CH4, and Ar.Expand
Composition, clouds, and origin of Jupiter's atmosphere - A case for deep multiprobes into giant planets
Current hypotheses of the formation of Jupiter and evolution of its atmosphere invoke large quantities of water, so that O/H = 1–3 × any of the other heavy elements, C, N, S, Ar, Kr, and Xe, that areExpand
A comparison of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: deep atmospheric composition, cloud structure, vertical mixing, and origin.
TLDR
The current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn is presented and a much more vigorous vertical mixing in Saturn's middle-upper atmosphere than in Jupiter's is pointed to. Expand
A low-temperature origin for the planetesimals that formed Jupiter
TLDR
It is shown that argon, krypton and xenon in Jupiter's atmosphere are enriched to the same extent as the other heavy elements, which suggests that the planetesimals carrying these elements must have formed at temperatures lower than predicted by present models of giant-planet formation. Expand
Clouds, aerosols, and photochemistry in the Jovian atmosphere
Abstract In this paper we review current ideas about the composition, horizontal and vertical distribution, and microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols in Jupiter's upper troposphere andExpand
Benzene and Haze Formation in the Polar Atmosphere of Jupiter
Jupiter has a large magnetosphere that episodically precipitates large amounts of energy into the polar atmosphere, giving rise to intense auroras [Clarke et al., 1996; Grodent et al., 2000]. AnExpand
Composition and origin of the atmosphere of Jupiter—an update, and implications for the extrasolar giant planets
Abstract New developments have led to this update of the composition and origin of Jupiter's atmosphere that were originally discussed in our Planet. Space Sci. 47 (1999) 1243 paper. Since JupiterExpand
Clouds and aerosols in Saturn's atmosphere
In this chapter we review the photochemical and thermochemical equilibrium theories for the formation of condensate clouds and photochemical haze in Saturn's upper troposphere and stratosphere andExpand
Models for Polar Haze Formation in Jupiter's Stratosphere
We present coupled chemical–microphysical models for the formation, growth, and physical properties of the jovian polar haze based on a gas-phase photochemical model for the auroral regions developedExpand
Models of Uranus' interior and magnetic field
Our understanding of Uranus' interior structure comes from the results of theoretical models. In this chapter, we review the methods for computing such models. We discuss the various physicalExpand
...
1
2
3
4
...