Counterion-mediated membrane penetration: cationic cell-penetrating peptides overcome Born energy barrier by ion-pairing with phospholipids.

Abstract

Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can enter cells non-endocytotically, despite that transport of charge across a membrane should be formally associated with an extremely high Born energy barrier. We studied partitioning of several derivatives of the CPP penetratin in a water-octanol two-phase system in presence of natural phospholipids to… (More)

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