Counterfactual thinking and stereotypes: The nonconformity effect

@article{Catellani2004CounterfactualTA,
  title={Counterfactual thinking and stereotypes: The nonconformity effect},
  author={Patrizia Catellani and Augusta Isabella Alberici and Patrizia Milesi},
  journal={European Journal of Social Psychology},
  year={2004},
  volume={34},
  pages={421-436}
}
Past research has shown that counterfactual thinking (‘if only ... ’) is related to judgements of responsibility for negative events. It has also shown that behaviours deviating from the target’s own behavioural standard (intrapersonal norm) are likely to trigger counterfactuals—the so-called exceptional-routine effect. In the present research, we demonstrate that behaviours deviating from a social category’s behavioural standard (social norm) are also likely to trigger counterfactuals—what may… 

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