Counter-Forensics: Attacking Image Forensics


This chapter discusses counter-forensics, the art and science of impeding or misleading forensic analyses of digital images. Research on counter-forensics is motivated by the need to assess and improve the reliability of forensic methods in situations where intelligent adversaries make efforts to induce a certain outcome of forensic analyses. Counter-forensics is first defined in a formal decision-theoretic framework. This framework is then interpreted and extended to encompass the requirements to forensic analyses in practice, including a discussion of the notion of authenticity in the presence of legitimate processing, and the role of image models with regard to the epistemic underpinning of the forensic decision problem. A terminology is developed that distinguishes security from robustness properties, integrated from post-processing attacks, and targeted from universal attacks. This terminology is directly applied in a self-contained technical survey of counter-forensics against image forensics, notably techniques that suppress traces of image processing and techniques that synthesize traces of authenticity, including examples and brief evaluations. A discussion of relations to other domains of multimedia security and an overview of open research questions concludes the chapter. 1 Definition of Counter-Forensics This final chapter changes the perspective. It is devoted to digital image counterforensics, the art and science of impeding and misleading forensic analyses of digital images. Rainer Böhme Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Dept. of Information Systems, Leonardo-Campus 3, 48149 Münster, Germany e-mail: Matthias Kirchner International Computer Science Institute, 1947 Center Street, Berkeley, CA 94704 e-mail:

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@inproceedings{Bhme2012CounterForensicsAI, title={Counter-Forensics: Attacking Image Forensics}, author={Rainer B{\"{o}hme and Matthias Kirchner and Husrev T. Sencar}, year={2012} }