Could spaceflight‐associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit?

  title={Could spaceflight‐associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit?},
  author={Nathan Gu{\'e}guinou and C{\'e}cile Huin-Schohn and Matthieu Bascove and J L Bueb and Eric J. Tschirhart and Christine Legrand-Frossi and Jean-Pol Frippiat},
  journal={Journal of Leukocyte Biology},
This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical basis for future manned missions to Mars. This paper summarizes major constraints associated with a trip to Mars, presents immunological hazards associated with this type of mission, and shows that our current understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of spaceflight is limited. Weakening of… 

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Weightlessness and the human body.

Although the observed changes are similar to the process of Earth-based diseases, many of the changes seen are much faster than on Earth.

Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

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Neuroendocrine and immune system responses with spaceflights.

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