Could spaceflight‐associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit?

  title={Could spaceflight‐associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit?},
  author={Nathan Gu{\'e}guinou and C{\'e}cile Huin-Schohn and Matthieu Bascove and J L Bueb and Eric J. Tschirhart and Christine Legrand-Frossi and Jean-Pol Frippiat},
  journal={Journal of Leukocyte Biology},
This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical basis for future manned missions to Mars. This paper summarizes major constraints associated with a trip to Mars, presents immunological hazards associated with this type of mission, and shows that our current understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of spaceflight is limited. Weakening of… 
The Immune System in Space: Are We Prepared? Conclusions, Outlook, and Recommendations
Serious concerns arose whether spaceflight-associated immune system weakening ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit.
Space Exploration and Travel, Future Technologies for Inflight Monitoring and Diagnostics
  • J. Frippiat
  • Biology
    Global Virology III: Virology in the 21st Century
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The effects of spaceflight on the immune system and microorganisms are reviewed, Earth-based models used to study the effects of such harsh environment are described, and some high-throughput “omics” technologies that are sufficiently developed to be ready for deployment and use soon onboard a spacecraft are described.
Immune System Dysregulation During Spaceflight: Potential Countermeasures for Deep Space Exploration Missions
relevant in-place operational countermeasures onboard ISS are reviewed and a myriad of potential immune countermeasures for exploration missions are discussed, including nutritional supplementation and functional foods, exercise and immunity, pharmacological options, and vaccination to mitigate herpes (and possibly other) virus risks are discussed.
Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation
Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities
Experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer to contribute to improve knowledge about spaceflight effects on the immune system.
NK cell function is impaired during long-duration spaceflight.
It is reported thatNK cell function is impaired in astronauts during an ~6-mo orbital space mission compared with preflight levels and ground-based controls, and this is the first study to report impaired NK cell function during long-duration space travel.
How does spaceflight affect the acquired immune system?
The impact of spaceflight on the immune system has been investigated extensively during spaceflight missions and in model experiments conducted on Earth. Data suggest that the spaceflight environment
Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.
  • L. Mermel
  • Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2013
Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.
Effect of microgravity & space radiation on microbes.
This review gives an overview of the effects of microgravity and space radiation on microorganisms both in real and simulated conditions.


Microbiological status of cosmonauts during orbital spaceflights on Salyut and Mir orbital stations.
Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight
The nature and significance of spaceflight‐induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.
Weightlessness and the human body.
Although the observed changes are similar to the process of Earth-based diseases, many of the changes seen are much faster than on Earth.
Microbial contamination of spacecraft.
  • D. Pierson
  • Physics
    Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology
  • 2001
Research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft, and a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation is important.
Changes in neutrophil functions in astronauts
The natural cytotoxicity in cosmonauts on board space stations.
Effects of mission duration on neuroimmune responses in astronauts.
The results suggest that sympathetic nervous system responses predominate after shorter spaceflights, while longer flights are characterized by glucocorticoid-mediated changes at landing that may result from the accumulative effects of microgravity over time.
Immunological analyses of U.S. Space Shuttle crewmembers.
Additional data from Space Shuttle flights 41B and 41D, involving 11 crewmembers, indicate a postflight decrease in cells reacting with "B" lymphocyte and monocyte monoclonal antibody tags, which implies that the previously reported loss of blastogenic capability may be a function of decreased monocyte control.
Summary of medical experience in the Apollo 7 through 11 manned spaceflights.
The goal of the Apollo Program was to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth. This goal was achieved in the Apollo 11 mission, with two astronauts stepping onto the lunar soil on July
Spaceflight induces changes in splenocyte subpopulations: effectiveness of ground-based models.
A ground-based protocol is created that can reproduce the immunological changes found after spaceflight, i.e., changes in splenic lymphocyte populations, to support the conclusion that the ground models tested did not induce similar changes in the immune system as did spaceflight.