Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?

@article{DiLorenzo2013Could1D,
  title={Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?},
  author={Chiara Di Lorenzo and Enzo Moro and Ariana dos Santos and Francesca Uberti and Patrizia Restani},
  journal={Drug testing and analysis},
  year={2013},
  volume={5 2},
  pages={
          116-21
        }
}
1,3 dimethylamylamine or methylexaneamine (DMAA) is a synthetic pharmaceutical patented in the 1940s as a nasal decongestant which can be used as a recreational stimulant. Alleged to occur in nature, DMAA has become a widely used ingredient in sports food supplements, despite its status as a doping agent and concerns over its safety. There is now some doubt as to whether it can be sourced naturally or whether it actually occurs naturally at all. The presence of DMAA was investigated by high… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.

This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient inDS is not substantiated.

Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive and can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories.

Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials

Differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials.

Examination of some toxicological parameters of dimethylamylamine when consumed alone or with caffeine

DMAA exhibits cytotoxic effects via membrane dysfunction and mitotic disturbance following increased oxidative stress in a dose- and caffeine-dependent manner.

Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements

The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated.

Detection of β-methylphenethylamine, a novel doping substance, by means of UPLC/MS/MS

Development and application of a simple and rapid analytical procedure that enables discrimination between both isomers of β-Methylphenethylamine resulted in detection of BMPEA in eight anti-doping samples, including the first report of adverse analytical finding regarding its use.

Enantiomeric separation of 1,3‐dimethylamylamine by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection using a dual‐selector system

The CE method employing an indirect UV detection for the enantioseparation of 1,3‐dimethylamylamine (DMAA), widely used in various preworkout and dietary supplements labeled as a constituent of geranium extract, was developed and applied for the determination of the stereoisomeric composition ofDMAA in commercial dietary supplements to verify the potential natural origin of DMAA.

Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 11 REFERENCES

Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methyl hexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material.

Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.

The data show that none of the authenticated P. graveolens essential oils or plant material, nor any commercial volatile oil of Pelargonium (geranium oil) contain MHA at detectable levels (limit of detection: 10 ppb), suggesting that MHA was of synthetic origin.

Detection in urine of 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, a doping agent.

Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills.

A 21-year-old male who suffered a cerebral haemorrhage shortly after ingesting two capsules of DMAA is described.

Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines.

Recent information obtained from an immunoassay vendor suggested the anorectic compound dimethylamylamine (DMAA) may be the cause of the false-positive screens.

The effect of amines on the blood sugar of the rat.

An analysis of the data indicates that epinephrine combines by means of its nitrogen atom, and produces glycogenolysis after this combination through the functional phenolic group.

An overview of new psychoactive substances and the outlets supplying them.

Availability of new psychoactive substances • The number of head shops in Ireland has been decreasing significantly on foot of actions taken by the Government to restrict and control new

The comparative pharmacology of the isomeric nitrogen methyl substituted heptylamines.

Nitrogen methylation did not uniformly increase or decrease the toxicity of any given agent and the 4-methyl-2-hexyl compounds were more active than the 2-heptyl derivatives.

Recreational use of bodybuilding supplement resulting in severe cardiotoxicity

  • Clin. Toxicol
  • 2011

Aminoalkanes. US Pat

  • Patented
  • 1944