Cotton‐top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) fail to show mirror‐guided self‐exploration

  title={Cotton‐top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) fail to show mirror‐guided self‐exploration},
  author={Marc D. Hauser and Cory T. Miller and Katie Liu and Renu Gupta},
  journal={American Journal of Primatology},
To investigate the problem of inter‐ and intraspecific differences on the mirror test, we conducted two experiments on cotton‐top tamarins. Experiment 1 employed a technique similar to one used recently on chimpanzees, and provided no evidence of mirror‐mediated touching of the marked area. In a control condition, involving colored dye applied to one arm, two subjects also failed to show self‐directed touching, even though they clearly looked at their newly dyed arm. Under these test conditions… Expand
Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Do Recognize Themselves in the Mirror: Implications for the Evolution of Self-Recognition
The results of this study demonstrate that rhesus monkeys do recognize themselves in the mirror and, therefore, have some form of self-awareness and support the notion of an evolutionary continuity of mental functions. Expand
Mark Tests for mirror self‐recognition in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) trained to touch marks
These are the first mark tests given to capuchin monkeys, and the results are consistent with the finding that no monkey species is capable of spontaneous mirror self‐recognition. Expand
Mirror responses in a group of Miopithecus talapoin
This study applied a rigorous methodology that took into account habituation of subjects to the mirror as an object and to the experimental situation, and found that the talapoin monkeys in the study showed a prerequisite for self-recognition, namely comparing their body parts to the image of these in the mirror. Expand
Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates
It is concluded that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs—are capable of mirror self-recognition. Expand
Black-and-White Colobus Monkeys (Colobus guereza) do not Show Mirror Self-Recognition
Mirror self-recognition (MSR) has been studied in many species of primates, but not previously in the black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza). A family group of five monkeys was videotapedExpand
Investigating self-recognition in bonobos: mirror exposure reduces looking time to self but not unfamiliar conspecifics
Investigation of how bonobos respond to different types of images of themselves and others, both before and after prolonged mirror exposure found that subjects paid significantly less attention to contingent images of ourselves than to non-contingent images of itself and unfamiliar individuals, suggesting they perceived the non- Contingent self-images as novel. Expand
The mirror test
Can animals recognize themselves in mirrors? Gallup (1970) conducted an experimental test of this question using a relatively simple approach. Individually housed chimpanzees were confronted with aExpand
Sneaking a peek: pigeons use peripheral vision (not mirrors) to find hidden food
It is found that pigeons do not use the reflection of mirrors to locate reward, but actually see the food peripherally with their near-panoramic vision, suggesting that use of reflections in a mirrored surface as a tool may be less widespread than currently thought. Expand
A new mark test for mirror self-recognition in non-human primates
A new variant of the mark test is devised which permits more unequivocal decisions about both the presence and absence of self-recognition, and an evolutionary hypothesis is put forward as to why many primates can use a mirror instrumentally – i.e. know how to use it for grasping at hidden objects – while failing in the decisive mark test. Expand
The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes
It is shown that lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) fail to use the mirror to find surreptitiously placed marks on their head, in spite of being strongly motivated to retrieve directly visible marks from the mirror surface itself and from their own limbs. Expand


Self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features.
The mirror test may not be sufficient for assessing the concept of self or mental state attribution in nonlinguistic organisms, and an individual's sensitivity to experimentally modified parts of its body may depend crucially on the relative saliency of the modified part. Expand
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror. Expand
Factors affecting mirror behaviour in western lowland gorillas,Gorilla gorilla
An angled-mirror apparatus developed by Anderson & Roeder was used that prevented two gorillas at the National Zoological Park from making direct eye contact with their reflections and showed no evidence of self-recognition, even after over 4 years of mirror exposure. Expand
Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors
Abstract Heyes’ (1994, Anim. Behav., 97, 909–919; 1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1533–1542) recent account of chimpanzees’, Pan troglodytes, reactions to mirrors challenged the view that they are capable ofExpand
A critical review of methodology and interpretation of mirror self-recognition research in nonhuman primates
In this paper we critically review conceptual and methodological issues of mirror self-exploration research. We conclude that: (1) mirror self-exploration provides evidence for mirrorExpand
Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.
  • C. Heyes
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Behavioral and brain sciences
  • 1998
A procedure that uses conditional discrimination training and transfer tests to determine whether chimpanzees have the concept "see" is proposed and critics are invited to identify flaws in the procedure and to suggest alternatives. Expand
Mental models of mirror-self-recognition: Two theories
Mirror-self-recognition is usually indicated by an organism's passing the mark test—that is, wiping a mark off its face upon observing its reflection in a mirror or on a video-screen. Two theoriesExpand
Chimpanzees: self-recognition.
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have thisExpand
Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have thisExpand
Life beyond the mirror: a reply to Anderson & Gallup
This paper presents a meta-anatomy of the woolly mammoth and its role in the evolution of social behaviour and shows clear patterns of growth and decline that are consistent with that of other animals. Expand