Costs of secondary parasitism in the facultative hyperparasitoid Pachycrepoideus dubius: does host size matter?

  title={Costs of secondary parasitism in the facultative hyperparasitoid Pachycrepoideus dubius: does host size matter?},
  author={Julie Grandgirard and Denis Poinsot and Liliane Krespi and Jean Pierre N{\'e}non and Anne Marie Cortesero},
  journal={Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata},
Although hyperparasitism frequently occur in parasitic insects, many aspects of this strategy remain unknown. We investigated possible fitness costs of hyperparasitism as influenced by host size. Our study was conducted with the facultative hyperparasitoid Pachycrepoideus dubius Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which parasitizes host species differing greatly in size. We compared some fitness traits (level of successful parasitism, development time, sex ratio and offspring size) of P… 

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