Costs of reproduction can explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon.

@article{Kindsvater2016CostsOR,
  title={Costs of reproduction can explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon.},
  author={Holly K. Kindsvater and Douglas C. Braun and Sarah Perin Otto and John D. Reynolds},
  journal={Ecology letters},
  year={2016},
  volume={19 6},
  pages={
          687-96
        }
}
Species' life history traits, including maturation age, number of reproductive bouts, offspring size and number, reflect adaptations to diverse biotic and abiotic selection pressures. A striking example of divergent life histories is the evolution of either iteroparity (breeding multiple times) or semelparity (breed once and die). We analysed published data on salmonid fishes and found that semelparous species produce larger eggs, that egg size and number increase with salmonid body size among… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Egg Size Versus Number of Offspring Trade-Off: Female Age Rather Than Size Matters in a Domesticated Arctic Charr Population
TLDR
Overall, the results show that, in the model Arctic charr population, allocation trade-off to reproduction and the way females allocate to egg mass and fecundity is largely determined by their age rather than mass.
Between semelparity and iteroparity: Empirical evidence for a continuum of modes of parity
TLDR
It is concluded that parity should be understood as a continuum of different modes of parity, which differ by the degree to which they disperse or concentrate reproductive effort in time.
Egg size and lipid content of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the wild and in captivity
  • T. A. Johnston
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
  • 2018
TLDR
Examination of egg quality of a long-lived, iteroparous salmonid with respect to maternal traits and environmental conditions in wild and captively reared populations found variation was stronger and more consistent for egg size than for lipid content.
A naturally segregating polymorphism balancing semelparous reproduction versus reproductive diapause revealed via microfluidic assessment of starvation stress in Caenorhabditis elegans
TLDR
Segregating natural variation for starvation response in this species suggests that different isolates may use different strategies (facultative vivipary versus reproductive diapause) for dealing with extreme food deprivation.
Does variation in egg structure among five populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) influence their survival in low oxygen conditions?
TLDR
Comparison of membranes of eggs that survived laboratory controlled low-oxygen conditions compared to those that died suggested that ova with less permeable membranes were more susceptible to hypoxia-induced mortality, indicating that oxygen requirements during incubation have been underestimated.
Ten principles from evolutionary ecology essential for effective marine conservation
TLDR
It is shown why considering the evolutionary context that has shaped life histories is crucial to sustainable management, and a framework for categorizing life histories, POSE (Precocial–Opportunistic–Survivor–Episodic), is introduced, which illustrates how a species’ life‐history traits determine a population's compensatory capacity.
Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Environmental Change and Management Actions for Migrating Fish
Migration strategies in fishes comprise a rich, ecologically important, and socioeconomically valuable example of biological diversity. The variation and flexibility in migration is evident between
Regional differences in energy allocation of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) along the US Northeast Shelf (36°N - 42°N) and throughout the spawning season.
Fish reproduction is energetically costly, leading to a suite of energy allocation strategies for maximizing lifetime reproductive potential. Assessing energetic allocation for species that inhabit a
Multiple optic gland signaling pathways implicated in octopus maternal behaviors and death
TLDR
This study indicates that, rather than a single ‘self-destruct’ hormone, the maternal optic glands employ multiple pathways as systemic hormonal signals of behavioral regulation.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES
OF CHICKENS AND EGGS: DIVERGING PROPAGULE SIZE OF ITEROPAROUS AND SEMELPAROUS ORGANISMS
  • S. Einum, I. Fleming
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2007
TLDR
Environmental unpredictability is unlikely to provide a general alternative explanation for the observed egg size divergence between iteroparous and semelparous salmonids, and introducing variation in age at maturity within propagule size genotypes has evolutionary effects similar to that of repeat breeding.
COMPARATIVE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF SEMELPARITY AND LIFE HISTORY IN SALMONID FISHES
  • B. Crespi, R. Teo
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2002
TLDR
The analyses support the life-history hypotheses that a lower degree of repeat breeding is linked to higher reproductive investment per breeding episode, and that semelparity evolves under a combination of relatively high juvenile survivorship and relatively low adult survivorship.
Maternal and environmental influences on egg size and juvenile life-history traits in Pacific salmon
TLDR
How maternal phenotype and environmental conditions can shape patterns of reproductive investment and consequently juvenile fitness-related traits within and among populations is revealed.
Reproductive strategies of Atlantic salmon: ecology and evolution
  • I. Fleming
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
  • 2004
TLDR
While knowledge about the breeding of Atlantic salmon is detailed, it is only beginning to understand the ultimate causes and/or functional significances of their reproductive strategies, and predictive models of the life history variation are developing, focusing on the need for empirical study and testing of life history and reproductive patterns.
Parental Care and the Evolution of Egg Size in Fishes
TLDR
A model is constructed to explain continuous covariation between the quality of parental care and egg size and it is found that as parental care reduces instantaneous egg mortality, the optimal egg size increases.
Environmental Quality Predicts Optimal Egg Size in the Wild
TLDR
This study provides the first empirical verification that environmental quality alters the relationship between investment per offspring and offspring fitness, such that optimal investment per youngster increases as environmental quality decreases.
Highly fecund mothers sacrifice offspring survival to maximize fitness
TLDR
It is concluded that maximization of maternal fitness by sacrificing offspring survival may well be a general phenomenon among highly fecund organisms.
Latitudinal Clines: A Trade‐Off between Egg Number and Size in Pacific Salmon
TLDR
It is suggested that local optima in egg size may result in latitudinal clines in egg number, and that egg number evolves around selection for egg size, which is in fact predicted by life history theory and may explain the clutch size patterns observed in many organisms.
Ecological and evolutionary patterns of freshwater maturation in Pacific and Atlantic salmonines
TLDR
The energetics of maturation and reproduction provides a unifying theme for understanding both the proximate and ultimate causes of variation in reproductive schedules among species, populations, and the sexes and demonstrates how flexible life histories can be both heritable and subject to strong environmental influences.
The demographic consequences of the cost of reproduction in ungulates.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that lack of adjustment of reproductive strategies to elevated levels of the cost of reproduction results in lower average density and longevity compared to females that have sufficient time to adjust to changes in the cost, which suggests that even moderate costs of reproduction may have a major negative effect on population dynamics of ungulates.
...
...