Costs of constitutive and herbivore-induced chemical defences in pine trees emerge only under low nutrient availability

Abstract

1. Production of antiherbivore chemical defences is generally assumed to be costly in terms of fitness, although some studies have failed to detect such costs. A convincing explanation is that the expression of fitness costs depends on environmental conditions such as nutrient availability. 2. Weperformed a greenhouse experiment with 33 half-sib families in… (More)

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