Costs: : the rest of the economic impact story

  title={Costs: : the rest of the economic impact story},
  author={John L. Crompton and Dennis Ramsay Howard},
  journal={Journal of Sport Management},
Economic impact studies are frequently commissioned to justify investments in sport projects. However, decisions also should include a consideration of a project’s costs since it is the net return on investment that should drive decisions. Whenever taxpayer funds are expended on a sports project there is an opportunity cost. Three types of opportunity cost are discussed. Explicit costs are those for which a government entity “writes a check.” They are comprised of event costs, land and… 

Figures from this paper

A Theoretical Comparison of the Economic Impact of Large and Small Events
In response to the increasing debate on the relative worth of small events compared to large events, we create a theoretical model to determine whether smaller events are more likely to create
Exploratory Factors Influencing Building Development Costs in New Zealand
Identification of costs drivers and their influence level on building development costs play a key role in the development of construction models and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any
Modeling Resident Spending Behavior During Sport Events: Do Residents Contribute to Economic Impact?
The role of residents in the calculation of economic impact remains a point of contention. It is unclear if changes in resident spending caused by an event contribute positively, negatively, or not
All My Rowdy Friends: The Effect of Super Bowl Hosting on Audit Timing
We use the Super Bowl as a setting to explore the impact of a non-financial, exogenous source of distraction on audit efficiency/timeliness. The magnitude of festivities related to hosting the Super
Impact studies in sport: the development of an assessment process model
The criticisms put forward against economic impact studies lead to a key question: “Is it possible to measure the impact of sporting properties and events in a holistic, conservative, and reliable
Perspectives of event leveraging by restaurants and city officials
Hosting events can attract visitors to an area and provide an opportunity for local businesses in the host community to benefit economically. Restaurants, in particular, have an opportunity to
Toward strategic and authentic corporate social responsibility in professional sport: a case study of the Detroit Lions.
The rise and institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in sport is captured in a growing body of work in sport management. This literature suggests professional teams should be
Leisure Trips to the Natural Environment: Examining the Tradeoff between Economic and Environmental Impact
This study examines the economic impact (measured by visitor spending) and environmental impact (measured by carbon footprint) of leisure trips to the natural environment. It also investigates the ...
Fan Mobilization and the Minnesota Sport-Stadium Campaign
As state- and local-government subsidies to professional sport organizations have increased over the past 3 decades, economic arguments have been crafted to justify these subsidies, such as


Economic Impact Analysis of Sports Facilities and Events: Eleven Sources of Misapplication
Many sports events, facilities, and franchises are subsidized either directly or indirectly by investments from public sector funds. The scarcity of tax dollars has led to growing public scrutiny of
The Local Context of a Sports Strategy for Economic Development
Three streams of research offer results in conflict with the conclusion that governments that provide tax dollars to build sports facilities are wasting money. Hamilton and Kahn and Rosentraub and
Full Count
Governments pay far more to participate in the development of major league sports facilities than is commonly understood due to the routine omission of public subsidies for land and infrastructure,
Tax Revisions of 2004 and Pro Sports Team Ownership
"Tax law revisions of 2004 altered the "roster depreciation allowance" enjoyed by pro sports team owners. Supporters claimed this would practically eliminate costly legal oversight by the IRS and,
Facility Finance: Measurement, Trends, and Analysis
Conventional wisdom has it that the public share of stadium and arena construction costs has been falling in recent years. Many have attributed this perceived decrease in part to the emergence of the
Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Subsidies for Sports Franchises, Stadiums, and Mega-Events?
This paper reviews the empirical literature assessing the effects of subsidies for professional sports franchises and facilities. The evidence reveals a great deal of consistency among economists
The Use and Misuse of Economic Impact Analysis
Economic impact studies have been an important component of the debate surrounding the merits of subsidizing professional sports teams. However, various studies have arrived at remarkably different
The Private Use of Tax-Exempt Bonds: Controlling Public Subsidy of Private Activity
The author provides a clear look at the major policy issues in tax-exempt bond legislation over the last 20 years. Unfettered issuance of such bonds tends to erode the tax base, misallocate the
Public Sector Support for Sport Tourism Events: The Role of Cost-benefit Analysis
Economic analysis is important in assessing the impacts and net benefits of sport tourism. The economic impacts of sporting events include the contribution to employment and income, both nationally
The Politics of Bread and Circuses
City leaders in the United States devote enormous public resources to the construction of large entertainment projects, including stadiums, convention centers, entertainment districts, and festival