Costly major histocompatibility complex signals produced only by reproductively active males, but not females, must be validated by a 'maleness signal' in three-spined sticklebacks.

@article{Milinski2010CostlyMH,
  title={Costly major histocompatibility complex signals produced only by reproductively active males, but not females, must be validated by a 'maleness signal' in three-spined sticklebacks.},
  author={Manfred Milinski and Si{\^a}n W. Griffiths and T. B. H. Reusch and Thomas Boehm},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  year={2010},
  volume={277 1680},
  pages={391-8}
}
Olfactory information about individual major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immune genotypes is important for mate choice in several species. For example, during the mate choice decisions of three-spined sticklebacks, females assess males on the basis of odour cues that convey information about their MHC diversity. Here, we show that an additional 'maleness' signal is needed to validate the MHC signal. Furthermore, using interaction between natural odour of sticklebacks and synthetic MHC… CONTINUE READING

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