Cospeciation of termite gut flagellates and their bacterial endosymbionts: Trichonympha species and ‘Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae’

@article{IkedaOhtsubo2009CospeciationOT,
  title={Cospeciation of termite gut flagellates and their bacterial endosymbionts: Trichonympha species and ‘Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae’},
  author={Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo and Andreas Brune},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
  year={2009},
  volume={18}
}
Symbiotic flagellates play a major role in the digestion of lignocellulose in the hindgut of lower termites. Many termite gut flagellates harbour a distinct lineage of bacterial endosymbionts, so‐called Endomicrobia, which belong to the candidate phylum Termite Group 1. Using an rRNA‐based approach, we investigated the phylogeny of Trichonympha, the predominant flagellates in a wide range of termite species, and of their Endomicrobia symbionts. We found that Trichonympha species constitute… 
Putatively free-living 'Endomicrobia'- ancestors of the intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates?
TLDR
Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis documented that Endomicrobia comprise an apical cluster of endosymbionts that is not necessarily monophyletic and several apparently basal lineages that include bacteria present in the gut of defaunated lower termites, the naturally flagellate-free guts of higher termites and scarab beetle larvae, and in the cow rumen.
'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae', a novel lineage of endosymbiotic Actinobacteria in termite gut flagellates of the genus Trichonympha.
TLDR
The endosymbionts, for which the name 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae' is suggested, represent a novel, deep-branching lineage in the Micrococcineae that consists exclusively of clones from termite guts.
Population Structure of Endomicrobia in Single Host Cells of Termite Gut Flagellates (Trichonympha spp.)
TLDR
Each host cell harbored a homogeneous population of symbionts that were specific to their respective host species, but phylogenetically distinct between each host lineage, corroborating cospeciation being caused by vertical inheritance.
High‐resolution phylogenetic analysis of Endomicrobia reveals multiple acquisitions of endosymbiotic lineages by termite gut flagellates
TLDR
A robust phylogenetic framework based on the near-full-length 16S-23S rRNA gene region of a diverse set of Endomicrobia from termites and cockroaches is presented, which revealed that endosymbionts arose independently at least four times from different free-living lineages.
Strict cospeciation of devescovinid flagellates and Bacteroidales ectosymbionts in the gut of dry-wood termites (Kalotermitidae).
TLDR
The molecular phylogenies of devescovinid flagellates and their symbionts from a wide range of dry-wood termites and their ectosymbionts showed a well-supported congruence, underscoring the general perception that the evolutionary history of flagella-bacteria symbioses in the termite gut is complex.
Identification and localization of the multiple bacterial symbionts of the termite gut flagellate Joenia annectens.
The hindgut of wood-feeding lower termites is densely colonized by a multitude of symbiotic micro-organisms. While it is well established that the eukaryotic flagellates play a major role in the
Exclusive Gut Flagellates of Serritermitidae Suggest a Major Transfaunation Event in Lower Termites: Description of Heliconympha glossotermitis gen. nov. spec. nov.
TLDR
The presence of two deep‐branching lineages of trichonymphid flagellates in Serritermitidae and the absence of all taxa characteristic of the ancestral rhinotermitids underscores that the flageLLate assemblages in the hindguts of lower termites were shaped not only by a progressive loss of flagella during vertical inheritance but also by occasional transfaunation events, where flages were transferred horizontally between members of different termite families.
Host-Symbiont Cospeciation of Termite-Gut Cellulolytic Protists of the Genera Teranympha and Eucomonympha and their Treponema Endosymbionts
TLDR
The molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared and strong congruence was observed in the tree topologies of all interacting partners, implying their cospeciating relationships.
Genome analysis of 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae', first representative of a deep-branching clade of Bifidobacteriales, strengthens evidence for convergent evolution in flagellate endosymbionts.
TLDR
The genome of 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae' is analyzed, which represents a novel, family-level lineage of uncultured Actinobacteria encountered so far only in termite guts, and corroborate the emerging concept that numerous lineages of unrelated flagellate endosymbionts have convergently evolved to fill similar ecological niches.
Bacterial symbionts of termite gut flagellates: cospeciation and nitrogen fixation in the gut of dry-wood termites
TLDR
This work combined molecular phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of the gut flagellates with the first ultrastructural investigation of the genus Metadevescovina, showing that I. marginipennis contains only one species of devesc Covina modica, which comprises three closely related phylotypes (sequence similarity >99.4%).
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