Cospeciation of termite gut flagellates and their bacterial endosymbionts: Trichonympha species and ‘Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae’

  title={Cospeciation of termite gut flagellates and their bacterial endosymbionts: Trichonympha species and ‘Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae’},
  author={Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo and Andreas Brune},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
Symbiotic flagellates play a major role in the digestion of lignocellulose in the hindgut of lower termites. Many termite gut flagellates harbour a distinct lineage of bacterial endosymbionts, so‐called Endomicrobia, which belong to the candidate phylum Termite Group 1. Using an rRNA‐based approach, we investigated the phylogeny of Trichonympha, the predominant flagellates in a wide range of termite species, and of their Endomicrobia symbionts. We found that Trichonympha species constitute… 

Putatively free-living 'Endomicrobia'- ancestors of the intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates?

Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis documented that Endomicrobia comprise an apical cluster of endosymbionts that is not necessarily monophyletic and several apparently basal lineages that include bacteria present in the gut of defaunated lower termites, the naturally flagellate-free guts of higher termites and scarab beetle larvae, and in the cow rumen.

'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae', a novel lineage of endosymbiotic Actinobacteria in termite gut flagellates of the genus Trichonympha.

The endosymbionts, for which the name 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae' is suggested, represent a novel, deep-branching lineage in the Micrococcineae that consists exclusively of clones from termite guts.

Population Structure of Endomicrobia in Single Host Cells of Termite Gut Flagellates (Trichonympha spp.)

Each host cell harbored a homogeneous population of symbionts that were specific to their respective host species, but phylogenetically distinct between each host lineage, corroborating cospeciation being caused by vertical inheritance.

High‐resolution phylogenetic analysis of Endomicrobia reveals multiple acquisitions of endosymbiotic lineages by termite gut flagellates

A robust phylogenetic framework based on the near-full-length 16S-23S rRNA gene region of a diverse set of Endomicrobia from termites and cockroaches is presented, which revealed that endosymbionts arose independently at least four times from different free-living lineages.

Strict cospeciation of devescovinid flagellates and Bacteroidales ectosymbionts in the gut of dry-wood termites (Kalotermitidae).

The molecular phylogenies of devescovinid flagellates and their symbionts from a wide range of dry-wood termites and their ectosymbionts showed a well-supported congruence, underscoring the general perception that the evolutionary history of flagella-bacteria symbioses in the termite gut is complex.

Identification and localization of the multiple bacterial symbionts of the termite gut flagellate Joenia annectens.

The hindgut of wood-feeding lower termites is densely colonized by a multitude of symbiotic micro-organisms. While it is well established that the eukaryotic flagellates play a major role in the

Exclusive Gut Flagellates of Serritermitidae Suggest a Major Transfaunation Event in Lower Termites: Description of Heliconympha glossotermitis gen. nov. spec. nov.

The presence of two deep‐branching lineages of trichonymphid flagellates in Serritermitidae and the absence of all taxa characteristic of the ancestral rhinotermitids underscores that the flageLLate assemblages in the hindguts of lower termites were shaped not only by a progressive loss of flagella during vertical inheritance but also by occasional transfaunation events, where flages were transferred horizontally between members of different termite families.

Host-Symbiont Cospeciation of Termite-Gut Cellulolytic Protists of the Genera Teranympha and Eucomonympha and their Treponema Endosymbionts

The molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared and strong congruence was observed in the tree topologies of all interacting partners, implying their cospeciating relationships.

Genome analysis of 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae', first representative of a deep-branching clade of Bifidobacteriales, strengthens evidence for convergent evolution in flagellate endosymbionts.

The genome of 'Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae' is analyzed, which represents a novel, family-level lineage of uncultured Actinobacteria encountered so far only in termite guts, and corroborate the emerging concept that numerous lineages of unrelated flagellate endosymbionts have convergently evolved to fill similar ecological niches.

Bacterial symbionts of termite gut flagellates: cospeciation and nitrogen fixation in the gut of dry-wood termites

This work combined molecular phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of the gut flagellates with the first ultrastructural investigation of the genus Metadevescovina, showing that I. marginipennis contains only one species of devesc Covina modica, which comprises three closely related phylotypes (sequence similarity >99.4%).



Cospeciation in the triplex symbiosis of termite gut protists (Pseudotrichonympha spp.), their hosts, and their bacterial endosymbionts

The members of this triplex symbiotic system appear to have cospeciated during their evolution with minor exceptions; the evolutionary relationships were probably established by termite sociality and the complex microbial community in the gut.

Phylogenetic diversity of 'Endomicrobia' and their specific affiliation with termite gut flagellates.

It is document that 'Endomicrobia' are present also in many other gut flagellates of lower termites and wood-feeding cockroaches, suggesting co-speciation between symbiont and host.

Evidence for cocladogenesis between diverse dictyopteran lineages and their intracellular endosymbionts.

The results support the idea that the stem group of modern cockroaches radiated sometime between the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous-not the Carboniferous, as has been suggested on the basis of roach-like fossils from this epoch.

The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' of bacteria: phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and endosymbiont members of various gut flagellated protists.

It appears that the cospeciation of protist genera is not the sole rule for the diversification of TG1 members of endosymbionts, suggesting their recent diversification.

Phylogenetic Position and In Situ Identification of Ectosymbiotic Spirochetes on Protists in the Termite Gut

Ectosymbiotic spirochetes of the three gut protist species Devescovina sp.

Comparison of Symbiotic Flagellate Faunae between Termites and a Wood-Feeding Cockroach of the Genus Cryptocercus

It is suggested that the symbiont faunae mainly reflect the host's phylogenetic relationships, and within the Rhinotermitid hosts, the genus Reticulitermes showed a unique symbionT fauna although it is not a basal taxon in the RhInotermitidae.

Phylogenetic diversity and whole-cell hybridization of oxymonad flagellates from the hindgut of the wood-feeding lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

The results demonstrate that the morphological variety of oxymonads is not caused by the presence of different developmental stages of the same organism, but that the various morphotypes represent different species.

Phylogenetic Diversity of Parabasalian Symbionts from Termites, Including the Phylogenetic Position of Pseudotrypanosoma and Trichonympha

The phylogeny of all known parabasalian small subunit rRNAs was examined and found many taxonomic groups to be supported by rRNA, but not all.