Cosmological experiments in superfluid helium?

  title={Cosmological experiments in superfluid helium?},
  author={Wojciech Zurek},
Symmetry breaking phase transitions occurring in the early Universe are expected to leave behind long-lived topologically stable structures such as monopoles, strings or domain walls1–6. Here I discuss the analogy between cosmological strings and vortex lines in the superfluid, and suggest a cryogenic experiment which tests key elements of the cosmological scenario for string formation. In a superfluid obtained through a rapid pressure quench, the phase of the Bose condensate wavefunction—the… Expand
Laboratory simulation of cosmic string formation in the early Universe using superfluid 3He
TOPOLOGICAL defects in the geometry of space–time (such as cosmic strings) may have played an important role in the evolution of the early Universe, by supplying initial density fluctuations whichExpand
Vortex formation in neutron-irradiated superfluid 3He as an analogue of cosmological defect formation
TOPOLOGICAL defects formed during a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early Universe1,2 could be responsible for seeding large-scale structure, for the anisotropy of the microwaveExpand
Generation of defects in superfluid 4He as an analogue of the formation of cosmic strings
ALTHOUGH the birth of the Universe is inaccessible to experimental study, aspects of cosmological theories can nonetheless be explored in the laboratory. Tiny inhomogeneities in the mix of particlesExpand
Cosmological Experiments in Superfluids and Superconductors
Evolution of the order parameter in condensed matter analogues of cosmological phase transitions is discussed. It is shown that the density of the frozen-out topological defects is set by theExpand
Initial monopole density in an inflationary Universe
Non-equilibrium dynamics leading to the formation of topological defects in a symmetry-breaking phase transition is studied. In a spatially flat inflationary Universe an initial number density ofExpand
Topological defects as relics of spontaneous symmetry breaking from black hole physics
Formation and evolution of topological defects in course of non-equilibrium symmetry breaking phase transitions is of wide interest in many areas of physics, from cosmology through condensed matterExpand
Colloidal test bed for universal dynamics of phase transitions
  • A. del Campo
  • Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2015
The paradigmatic KZM provides a framework to describe the dynamics across a continuous phase transition and inherits an imprint of universality, scaling with the quench time as t̂ = ðτ0τQÞ and eðtÞ ’ t=τQ, where τQ is theQuench time in which the transition is crossed. Expand
Superfluid 3He Simulation of Cosmic String Creation in the Early Universe
We discuss the first experimental observations of a deficit in the thermal energy released after the exothermic neutron-3He nuclear reaction in superfluid3He at temperatures approaching 100μK. WeExpand
Topological defects as relics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a holographic superconductor
Formation and evolution of topological defects in course of non-equilibrium symmetry breaking phase transitions is of wide interest in many areas of physics, from cosmology through condensed matterExpand
Creation of quantized vortices at the lambda transition in liquid helium-4
A fast (∼ 3 ms) adiabatic expansion of a volume of liquid4He through the lambda transition is being used to study the nature of the transition and to model the cosmological false vacuum to trueExpand


Phase transitions in gauge theories and cosmology
Reviews phase transitions in super-dense matter, which consists of particles interacting in accordance with the unified gauge theories of weak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. It is shownExpand
Fluctuations and lambda phase transition in liquid helium
Abstract A general dynamical scaling theory of phase transitions is established by exploiting the absence of a characteristic length in an extended system at its phase transition. This similarityExpand
Vortex Line Models for Dual Strings
We call attention to the possibility of constructing field theories for the dual string. As an example, we show that a Higgs type of Lagrangian allows for vortex-line solutions, in analogy with theExpand
Progress in low temperature physics
Preface. Contents of previous volumes. 1. Critical behavior and scaling of confined 4 He (F.M. Gasparini and I. Rhee). 2. Ultrasonic spectroscopy of the order parameter collective modes of superfluidExpand
The detection of single quanta of circulation in liquid helium II
  • W. Vinen
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1961
An apparatus is described for detecting single quanta of superfluid circulation round a fine wire in liquid helium II. The wire is stretched down the centre of a cylindrical vessel containing helium,Expand
Superfluidity and Superconductivity
Superfluids: An Introduction Condensates and Excitations Helium II: The Two-Fluid Model Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity Superconductors: Electrodynamics and Tunneling Vortex States JosephsonExpand
Some Implications of a Cosmological Phase Transition
I discuss the reasons for believing that phase transitions occurred in the very early history of the universe, and the topological structures that may have been generated thereby-in particular, theExpand
Observations of persistent currents in superfluid /sup 3/He-B have been made with use of a recently developed ac gyroscope technique. The persistent currents are generated in a toroidal region filledExpand
Mutual friction in a heat current in liquid helium II I. Experiments on steady heat currents
  • W. Vinen
  • Chemistry
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1957
Experiments have been carried out on the conduction of heat through helium II in channels of large rectangular cross-section (~ 2 × 6 mm) for small heat current densities. The observed relationshipExpand
Quantum theory and measurement
The forty-nine papers collected here illuminate the meaning of quantum theory as it is disclosed in the measurement process. Together with an introduction and a supplemental annotated bibliography,Expand