Cortisol and transcortin in human seminal plasma and amniotic fluid as estimated by modern specific assays

  title={Cortisol and transcortin in human seminal plasma and amniotic fluid as estimated by modern specific assays},
  author={Janet Brotherton},
Summary Cortisol concentrations in human seminal plasma, as estimated by the very specific Amersham ‘Amerlite’ luminescence immunoassay, were 176 ± 43 (85–260) nmol/l, that is, 63.7 ± 15.5 (31–94) ng/ml (mean ± SD, n = 21). This is about 60% of random levels in blood serum and is the first description of Cortisol in seminal fluid. In human amniotic fluid at 16–22 weeks of gestation, Cortisol concentrations were lower, at 72.6 ± 14.6 (63–124) nmol/l, that is, 29.3 ± 5.3 (23–45) ng/ml (n = 21… 

The content of four immunomodulatory steroids and major androgens in human semen

Occurrence and reproductive roles of hormones in seminal plasma

A survey of the hormones found in human seminal plasma, with particular emphasis on reproductive hormones is provided, along with instances where measuring their levels in seminal plasma is preferable to measurement of levels in blood plasma.

Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.

Steroids in semen, their role in spermatogenesis, and the possible impact of endocrine disruptors

Abstract The data on hormonal steroids in the human seminal plasma and their role in spermatogenesis are summarized. The seminal steroid levels need not correlate with the blood plasma levels. The

Evidence for the Synthesis of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin in Human Placenta

Findings suggest that CBG is synthesized in human placenta during pregnancy in addition to its synthesis in the liver.

A correlation study between steroid hormone levels and anti-sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma of men with or without reduced sperm motility

The results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity to sperm antibodies and altered steroid levels such as low cortisol, and high progesterone and estradiol in seminal plasma of volunteers with low sperm motility.

Glucocorticoid metabolism and reproduction: a tale of two enzymes.

Evidence indicates that follicular fluid contains endogenous modulators of cortisol metabolism by 11 beta HSD1, the concentrations of which are associated with the clinical outcome of assisted conception cycles and are altered in cystic ovarian disease.

Complexity of seminal fluid: a review

  • A. Poiani
  • Biology
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2006
The diversity of microorganismal, cellular and molecular components of seminal fluids can be interpreted in the light of emergence of co-adapted complexes, host–parasite coevolution, male–female arms races, sperm competition, pleiotropy and redundancy of function.

The presence of biologically significant concentrations of glucocorticoids but little or no cortisol binding globulin within aqueous humor: relevance to immune privilege in the anterior chamber of the eye.

The results show that AH contains biologically relevant concentrations of glucocorticoids and that CBG is relatively absent so that glucoc Corticosteroids present are largely free, and they suggest that regional sites take advantage of the activities of multiple factors to maintain an immune-privileged status.

Analysis of corticosteroids, corticosteroid metabolites and related compounds in body fluids and tissues

Analysis methods are now available for all of the important adrenal cortical hormones and many of their major precursors and metabolites, and these have found wide application, especially in clinical research and investigation, where they have been used to elucidate the nature of many endocrine disease processes, and for diagnosis and treatment.



β-Endorphin and Calcitonin in Human Semen

It was suggested that β-E and calcitonin present in seminal plasma are synthesized mostly in a compartment of the male reproductive system and would be involved in the process of motility through their effect on calcium transport.

Simple adaptation of a radioimmunoassay kit for serum cortisol used to measure salivary cortisol.

Although the use of qualitycontrol and assessment material with dry-reagent chemistry systems has been queried, it was found that test-strip results for the multiply-spiked lyophilized human samples showed no significant bias from the overall trimmed mean, and the stability of calibration displayed is important in “stat” situations.

Salivary cortisol measurement: a practical approach to assess pituitary-adrenal function.

Salivary cortisol measurements are an excellent index of plasma free cortisol concentrations that circumvent the physiological, pathological, and pharmacological changes due to corticosteroid-binding globulin alterations and offer a practical approach to assess pituitary-adrenal function.

Identification and measurement of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) in human saliva.

It is suggested that these proteins pass from the blood to saliva in a non-specific manner, and may influence the steroid content of saliva under certain physiological circumstances.

The effect of oral contraceptives on plasma-free and salivary cortisol and cortisone.


The results support the assumption of a fetal origin for ACTH in amniotic fluid and suggest that the high secretion of ACTH at the beginning of the last trimester of pregnancy may stimulate the development of the adrenal cortex and result in the increased cortisol secretion necessary for fetal lung maturation.

Detection of corticosteroid binding globulin in parotid fluids: evidence for the presence of both protein-bound and non-protein-bound (free) steroids in uncontaminated saliva.

It is concluded that both protein-bound and free steroids are present in uncontaminated saliva and that salivary total and plasma free steroid concentrations are not identical.