Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress.

  title={Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress.},
  author={Andrzej T. Slominski and Jacobo Wortsman and Thomas Luger and Ralf Paus and S Solomon},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={80 3},
The skin is a known target organ for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), beta-endorphin, and ACTH and also a source of these peptides. Skin expression levels of the POMC gene and POMC/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) peptides are not static but are determined by such factors as the physiological changes associated with hair cycle (highest in anagen phase), ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, immune cytokine release, or… 

Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression in cutaneous lupus lesions

The novel finding of elevated CRH expression solely in the affected skin deep dermis supports the notion of a cutaneous local dysfunction of the CRH-POMC axis in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SLE lesions.

Characterization of a ultraviolet B-induced corticotropin-releasing hormone-proopiomelanocortin system in human melanocytes.

UVB induces CRH production in human melanocytes through stimulation of the protein kinase A pathway, with sequential involvement of CRH-CRH receptor 1 in the stimulation of POMC expression.

Cutaneous expression of corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, and CRH receptors

  • A. SlominskiJ. Wortsman E. Wei
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2001
The cutaneous CRH/POMC expression is highly reactive to common stressors such as immune cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, cutaneous pathology, or even the physiological changes associated with the hair cycle phase, and similar to its central analog, the local expression and action of CRH / POMC elements appear to be highly organized and entrained, representing general mechanism of cutaneous response to stressful stimuli.

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC): the cutaneous roles of its melanocortin products and receptors

  • G. Millington
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • 2006
The precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) produces many biologically active peptides via a series of enzymatic steps in a tissue‐specific manner, yielding the melanocyte‐stimulating hormones

Gene expression analysis of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone-proopiomelanocortin system in psoriasis skin biopsies.

The up-regulation of POMC, melanocortin receptors, CRH receptor type 1 and MCHR1 in the lesional and non-lesional skin of Psoriasis patients supports the importance of the local CRH-POMC system in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Expression of the corticotropin‐releasing hormone–proopiomelanocortin axis in the various clinical types of psoriasis

It is suggested that CRH, a key stress hormone, may play an important role in the pathomechanism of psoriasis.

In situ expression of corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes in human skin

It is suggested that the skin may have “a local stress response system,” whose activity is mediated by CRH and POMC peptides, in an equivalent to hypothalamus‐pituitary adrenal axis, and are regulated by inflammatory cells as well as by autocrine mechanisms.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1 and histidine decarboxylase expression in chronic urticaria.

Results implicate CRH-R in chronic urticaria, which is often exacerbated by stress, and the mast cell related gene histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which regulates the production of histamine, in normal and pathological skin biopsies.

beta-Endorphin as a regulator of human hair follicle melanocyte biology.

It is demonstrated that human hair follicle melanocytes (HFM) express mRNA for the mu-opiate receptor and POMC, suggesting a new regulatory role for beta-END in human HFM biology, providing a new research direction into the fundamental regulation of human hair pigmentation.



Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides are synthesized and released by human keratinocytes.

Evidence is provided that human keratinocytes produce POMC-derived peptides such as alpha MSH and ACTH, which have been recognized as potent immunomodulatory mediators and may have a major impact on the skin immune system.

Proopiomelanocortin gene product regulation in keratinocytes.

The data establish that keratinocytes synthesize POMC protein as well as its derivatives beta LPH and beta-endorphin, and that this process is modulated by TPA, IL-1A, and UVR.

Expression of proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and CRH receptor in melanoma cells, nevus cells, and normal human melanocytes.

Immunohistochemistry shows that CRH as well as POMC is strongly expressed in advanced melanomas, such as vertically growing lesions of acral lentiginous, nodular and metastatic melanoma, in contrast to negative expression in nevus cells, and indicates that tumor progression accentuates CRH, CRH-R, and PomC expression by melanoma cells.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides are present in human myometrium.

It is demonstrated that levels of CRH and POMC peptide in human uterine tissue change with pregnancy and that CRH is produced locally by myometrial smooth muscle cells.

Characterisation of ACTH peptides in human skin and their activation of the melanocortin-1 receptor.

It would appear that ACTH peptides can serve as natural ligands of the MC-1 receptor on human melanocytes and their presence in the skin suggests that, together with alpha-MSH, they may have a role in the regulation of human melanocyte regulation.

Regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene expression in pituitary.

This review will deal primarily with the regulation of POMC gene expression in rat and mouse pituitary tissues, the main site of expression is the pituitaries anterior lobe cortocotroph and intermediate lobe melanotroph.

Differential Temporal and Spatial Expression of POMC mRNA and of the Production of POMC Peptides During the Murine Hair Cycle

POMC products displayed a differential cellular localization and temporal expression during anagen, and β -Endorphin immunoreactivity was primarily limited to sebocytes, while POMC message levels were below the limit of detection by ISH, but were detectable in skin extracts by RTPCR.