Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Receptor Regulation and the Stress Response

  title={Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Receptor Regulation and the Stress Response},
  author={Greti Aguilera},
  journal={Trends in Endocrinology \& Metabolism},
  • G. Aguilera
  • Published 1 October 1998
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism

Negative regulation of corticotropin releasing factor expression and limitation of stress response

Evidence indicates that the main regulator of ACTH secretion in acute and chronic conditions is CRF, in spite of the fact that the selective increases in expression of parvocellular VP and pituitary VP V1b receptors observed during prolonged activation of the HPA axis have suggested that VP becomes the predominant regulator.

Stress Responsiveness of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis: Age-Related Features of the Vasopressinergic Regulation

The importance of the vasopressinergic regulation of the HPA stress responsiveness is greatest during fetal development, in neonatal period, and in the lactating adult with emphasis on the effects of aging on vasocorticoids regulation of HPA axis stress responsiveness.

HPA axis responsiveness to stress: Implications for healthy aging

  • G. Aguilera
  • Biology, Medicine
    Experimental Gerontology
  • 2011

The molecular physiology of CRH neurons

Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress.

The CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its ultimate effect-a protracted release of glucocorticoids.

Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by neuropeptides

  • G. Aguilera
  • Biology
    Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
  • 2011
It is likely that VP co-secreted with CRH from axonal terminals in the external zone of the median eminence plays a prominent role by potentiating the stimulatory effect of CRH and by increasing the number of pituitary corticotrophs during chronic challenge.

Vasopressin pressor receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis by acute ethanol stress in rats.

  • F. LászlóC. Varga G. Makara
  • Biology, Medicine
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2001
The hypothesis that stress-induced AVP may not only act directly on the ACTH producing anterior pituitary cells but also indirectly at the hypothalamic level via the synthesis and release of CRH is supported.

Hormones, Stress and Depression

Chronic elevated levels of circulating corticosteroid hormones are believed to enhance vulnerability to a variety of diseases, including human affective disorders.



Stress‐Specific Regulation of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor Expression in the Paraventricular and Supraoptic Nuclei of the Hypothalamus in the Rat

The data show that stress‐specific activation of the parvicellular and magnocellular systems is associated with CRH receptor expression, and suggest a role for CRH in the autoregulation of hypothalamic function.

Regulation of Pituitary ACTH Secretion during Chronic Stress

  • G. Aguilera
  • Biology, Medicine
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • 1994
Although the exact interaction between regulatory factors and the molecular mechanisms controlling the sensitivity of the corticotroph during adaptation to chronic stress remain to be determined, it is clear that regulation of the proportional secretion of CRH and VP in the PVN, modulation of pituitary VP receptors, and the sensitivity to feedback inhibition play a critical role.

Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat brain and pituitary by glucocorticoids and stress.

It is suggested that high concentrations of CORT or CRH synergistically decrease CRH-R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in the AP, and that at least high CORT has an inhibitory effect on PVN CRh-R mRNA levels.

Differential regulation of brain and pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor receptors by corticosterone.

The selective down-regulation of anterior pituitary CRF receptors after corticosterone administration is similar to the change inCRF receptors previously reported after adrenalectomy and indicates that receptor regulatory mechanisms in secretory cells differ from those in neural tissue.

Mechanisms of Action of CRF and Other Regulators of ACTH Release in Pituitary Corticotrophs

The presence of cell-surface receptors for the several putative regulators of ACTH release in the corticotroph provides a complex and multifactorial control system in which the actions of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (CAMP)-dependent regulators are integrated with those of calcium/phospholipid-dependent stimuli such as vasopressin, angiotension 11, and catecholamines.

Interaction Between Glucocorticoids and Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in the Regulation of the Pituitary CRH Receptor in vivo

Data show that interaction between CRH and glucocorticoids counteracts individual inhibitory effects of these regulators alone, and that such effects are likely to contribute to the regulatory pattern of pituitary CRH receptors during acute stress.

Regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for corticotropin releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary during stress.

The data suggest that increased hypothalamic secretion of CRH and VP mediates the delayed up-regulatory effect of stress on CRH receptor mRNA, and that resting levels of glucocorticoids are required for this effect.

Regulation of hypothalamic and pituitary corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid by adrenalectomy and glucocorticoids.

The inability of long term adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid administration to modify pituitaryCRH receptor mRNA levels suggests that CRH receptor down-regulation observed under these experimental conditions depends mainly on translational and post-translational events rather than receptor RNA levels.

Corticotropin-releasing factor: effects on the autonomic nervous system and visceral systems.

Changes in animal physiology induced by CRF provide a tenable basis for hypothesizing that this peptide may be physiologically involved in integrating the neuroendocrine, autonomic, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses to stressful stimuli.