Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains one of the most disturbing side effects of cancer treatment. Research in antiemetic therapy has progressed gradually since the early eighties, and the development of antiemetic agents continues. This review focuses on the current management of CINV based on the most recent guidelines, and adherence to the latter is examined more carefully. Setrons (5HT3 receptor antagonists), corticosteroids, and NK-1 receptor antagonists are the cornerstones of antiemetic therapy. Corticosteroids are one of the oldest agents in the prevention of CINV. They are highly effective, increase the effect of other antiemetic agents, and are cost-effective. The latest developed 5HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron led to an update of the guidelines of CINV. Other types include benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, and olanzapine. Various factors contribute to the overall risk of developing CINV, such as patient characteristics, emetogenic potency of the chemotherapeutic agents, and correct prevention of CINV. Current guidelines determine which is the right preventive regimen for each cancer patient at risk for experiencing CINV. Adherence to these guidelines and implementation in daily practice seem to be below the optimal level. In Belgium, authorities use the guidelines as a base for reimbursement and this has increased the level of implementation.