Corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous herpes simplex type-1 encephalitis in adults

@article{Varatharaj2017CorticosteroidresponsiveFG,
  title={Corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous herpes simplex type-1 encephalitis in adults},
  author={Aravinthan Varatharaj and James A R Nicoll and Emanuela Pelosi and Ashwin Arnold Pinto},
  journal={Practical Neurology},
  year={2017},
  volume={17},
  pages={140 - 144}
}
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain… 

An Adult Case of Herpes Simplex Virus-associated Granulomatous Encephalitis

A 74-year-old man with a history of herpes simplex encephalitis suffered recurrent seizures and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion and resection was performed, and a polymerase chain reaction using a brain biopsy specimen was positive for HSV DNA; thus, the patient was diagnosed with HSV-associated granulomatousEncephalitis.

A rare suspected case of chronic nodular granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis in an adult

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of macroscopic “mass-like” nodular granuloma formation in an adult.

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis: A literature review

Rapid diagnostic work-up and early diagnosis in all suspected or confirmed cases will result in early initiation of intravenous acyclovir, which may decrease morbidity and death.

Brain MRI features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis secondary to central nervous system infection in adult patients.

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis secondary to CNS infection has its imaging features-extensive lesion distribution, leptomeningeal enhancement, early atrophy, and necrosis-that could deepen the understanding of the pathophysiology and manifestation of the autoimmune encephalopathy besides the classic type.

Potential Role for Herpesviruses in Alzheimer's Disease.

Consideration reveals a possible viral "Hit-and-Run" scenario of AD, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may increase risk for AD following neurotropic infection, and reveals several novel therapeutic targets that may prove efficacious in AD.

Различные исходы энцефалита, вызванного Herpes Simplex Virus (клинические и ЭЭГ наблюдения)

1 Клиника анестезиологии и интенсивной медицины, медицинский факультет им. Я. Ессениуса, Братиславский университет им. Я. Коменского, Словацкая Республика, 03659, г. Мартин, ул. Колларова, д. 2 2

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES

Chronic Granulomatous Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in Children

It is indicated that herpes simplex encephalitis in children can be complicated by chronic granulomatous inflammation with mineralization, which may be an under-recognized complication of herpessimplex infection during the first few years of life.

Herpes simplex virus–1 encephalitis can trigger anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: Case report

An adult with this disorder is reported, it is demonstrated that synthesis of NMDAR antibodies began after HSVE, and relapsing symptoms were due to steroid-responsive anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

Autopsy neuropathological findings in ‘burnt out’ herpes simplex encephalitis and use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect viral DNA

The hypothesis that herpes simplex virus may persist within the central nervous system after acute herpes encephalitis, to cause latent or low‐grade productive infection, is supported.

Outcome of and prognostic factors for herpes simplex encephalitis in adult patients: results of a multicenter study.

  • F. RaschilasM. Wolff F. Rozenberg
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2002
Management of herpes simplex encephalitis has been considerably improved by the availability of acyclovir therapy and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assays, but prognosis for patients with HSE is misestimated.

Intrathecal antibody production against Epstein-Barr and other neurotropic viruses in pediatric and adult onset multiple sclerosis

The results do not rule out the possibility that EBV is involved in the pathogenesis of MS by triggering diverse cellular immune mechanisms, but they argue against a direct pathogenic role of EBV-targeted humoral immune response within the CNS.

Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: application of polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid from brain-biopsied patients and correlation with disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group.

HSV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in CSF of 53 (98%) of 54 patients with biopsy-proven HSE and was detected in all 18 CSF specimens obtained before brain biopsy from patients with proven HSE.

Herpes simplex virus genomes in human nervous system tissue analyzed by polymerase chain reaction

The study has confirmed the previous demonstration of latent HSV in trigeminal ganglia in normal humans and assessed the frequency and distribution of HSV genomes in the nervous system tissues of patients dying of nonneurological causes.

Use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect herpes simplex virus DNA in paraffin sections of human brain at necropsy.

The PCR provides a simple and specific means of detecting HSV1 DNA in routinely processed necropsy material and amplification of c-myc DNA in sections from all of the brains studied.