Correspondence of Soldier Defense Secretion Mixtures with Cuticular Hydrocarbon Phenotypes for Chemotaxonomy of the Termite Genus Reticulitermes in North America

@article{Nelson2004CorrespondenceOS,
  title={Correspondence of Soldier Defense Secretion Mixtures with Cuticular Hydrocarbon Phenotypes for Chemotaxonomy of the Termite Genus Reticulitermes in North America},
  author={Lori J. Nelson and Laurence G Cool and Brian T. Forschler and Michael I. Haverty},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={27},
  pages={1449-1479}
}
Soldier defense secretions from samples of Reticulitermes collected in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Georgia were characterized and correlated with cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes. Twenty-seven cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes have been defined, and soldier defense secretion (SDS) phenotypes have been described for 25 of these. Forty-five terpenoid compounds were found, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and a few diterpenes. The monoterpenes include (−)-α-pinene… 
Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Soldier Defense Secretions of Reticulitermes in Southern California: A Critical Analysis of the Taxonomy of the Genus in North America
TLDR
The CHC phenotype SC-A found in southern California likely represents R. hesperus and SC-B appears to be a new, as yet undescribed species, which is similar, but not identical, to previously designated phenotypes of Reticulitermes from northern California.
Interspecific Variation in Terpenoid Composition of Defensive Secretions of European Reticulitermes Termites
TLDR
The species-specific compound composition provides insight into taxonomy and species origin of European Reticulitermes termite taxa and demonstrates the limits for this analytical approach.
Variations in Worker Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Soldier Isoprenoid Defensive Secretions Within and Among Introduced and Native Populations of the Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes
TLDR
This study compared the levels of chemical variation within and among introduced (French) and native (U.S.) populations of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, finding that both localities and populations can be distinguished by using the variation in CHCs.
Cuticular hydrocarbons suggest three lineages in Reticulitermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) from North America.
Reticulitermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Arizona: Multiple Cuticular Hydrocarbon Phenotypes Indicate Additional Taxa
TLDR
Five phenotypes based on cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures of worker termites of Reticulitermes hesperus Banks from northern California are identified and additional data from morphology, behavior and/or DNA may confirm that these phenotypes represent distinct species.
Antipredator activity and endogenous biosynthesis of defensive secretion in larval and pupal Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
TLDR
Experiments suggest that the wide use of alkaloids by more derived coccinellids may have arisen after their divergence from the more basal Microweisinae, a group for which chemical defenses have not been previously investigated.
Antipredator activity and endogenous biosynthesis of defensive secretion in larval and pupal Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
TLDR
Experiments with D. catalinae larvae fed isotopically labeled glucose showed 13C-incorporation into both categories of compounds within the pupal secretion, demonstrating that these antipredator compounds, which differ from the typical nitrogenous defensive molecules of coccinellids, are biosynthesized endogenously.
Chemical signals inducing attraction and alarm in European Reticulitermes termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)
TLDR
The minor volatile compounds, the mono- and sesquiterpenes, function as alarm pheromone in Reticulitermes: they were the most attractive components, and also the ones inducing an intense alarm reaction in both workers and soldiers.
High-level expression of the Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene in the frontal gland of soldiers in Reticulitermes speratus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
TLDR
To confirm whether theGGPP is used for diterpene synthesis in a representative of an earlier-branching termite lineage, the GGPP synthase gene (RsGGPPS) was identified in the rhinotermitid Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe).
Effects of Soldier-Derived Terpenes on Soldier Caste Differentiation in the Termite Reticulitermes flavipes
TLDR
It is determined that soldier head extracts (SHE), when provided to totipotent workers along with the insect morphogenetic juvenile hormone (JH), significantly enhanced soldier caste differentiation and further suggest convergent evolution of terpene functions in enhancing JH-dependent soldier caste differentiate.
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