Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

@article{Abraham2007CorrelationOT,
  title={Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects},
  author={John Abraham and Pedro Abreu and Marco Aglietta and C. Aguirre and Denis Allard and Ingomar Allekotte and J. Allen and P. Allison and C. {\'A}lvarez and Jaime {\'A}lvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and M. Ambrosio and Luis A. Anchordoqui and Sofia Andringa and Anna Anzalone and Carla Aramo and Stefano Argiro and Katsushi Arisaka and Eric Armengaud and Francesco Arneodo and Fernando Arqueros and T. Asch and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and P. Assis and B. S. Atulugama and Julien Aublin and Maximo Ave and Gualberto Avila and Thomas B{\"a}cker and D. Badagnani and Ademarlaudo F. Barbosa and David Barnhill and S. L. C. Barroso and Pablo Bauleo and James J. Beatty and Tristan Beau and B. R. Becker and Kurt H. Becker and J Almirall Bellido and Segev BenZvi and Corinne Berat and T. Bergmann and Paolo Bernardini and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and P. Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and Francisco Blanco and Pasquale Blasi and Carla Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and C. Bonifazi and R. Bonino and Murat Boratav and Jeffrey Brack and Pedro Brogueira and William Cullen Brown and Peter Buchholz and A. Bueno and Nicol{\'a}s G. Busca and Karen S. Caballero-Mora and Bei Cai and David V. Camin and Rossella Caruso and Washington Rodrigues de Carvalho and Antonella Castellina and Osvaldo Catalano and Gabriella Cataldi and L. Cazon-Boado and Rosanna Cester and Jo{\"e} Chauvin and Andrea Chiavassa and Jose Augusto Chinellato and Aaron S. Chou and J. Chye and P D J Clark and Roger Clay and E. Colombo and R{\'u}ben Conceiç{\~a}o and Brian M. Connolly and Fernando Contreras and Joseph Coppens and Alain Cordier and U. Cotti and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and Alexandre Creusot and James W. Cronin and Sylvie Dagoret-Campagne and Kai Daumiller and Bruce R. Dawson and Rog{\'e}rio M. de Almeida and Cinzia De Donato and Sijbrand J. de Jong and Gonzalo de la Vega and W.J.M. de Mello Junior and J. de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Vitor de Souza and Luis del Peral and Olivier Deligny and A. Della Selva and C. Delle Fratte and Hans Peter Dembinski and Claudio Di Giulio and J. C. Chirinos Diaz and Carola Dobrigkeit and Juan Carlos D'Olivo and Damien Dornic and Alexei V. Dorofeev and Jo{\~a}o C. Anjos and M. T. Dova and Domenico D'urso and Michael DuVernois and Ralph Engel and L. N. Epele and Martin Erdmann and Carlos Ourivio Escobar and Alberto Etchegoyen and Pedro Facal San Luis and Heino Falcke and Glennys R. Farrar and A. Campos Fauth and Norberto Fazzini and A. Fern{\'a}ndez and Francesc Ferrer and Steven Ferry and Brian E. Fick and Alberto Filevich and Andrej Filip{\vc}i{\vc} and Ivor Fleck and R. Fonte and Claudia Fracchiolla and Walter Fulgione and Bruce Rafael Mellado Garcia and Diego Garc{\'i}a G{\'a}mez and Diego Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and X. Garrido and Heiko Geenen and Graciela B. Gelmini and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and Maria Giller and Henry D. Glass and M. S. Gold and Geraldina Golup and Flavia Alejandra G{\'o}mez Albarrac{\'i}n and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and R{\'a}ul Gomez Herrero and P. Gonçalves and M. Gonçalves do Amaral and Daniel Gonzalez and Juan Antonio Gonz{\'a}lez and M. M. Gonz{\'a}lez and Dariusz G{\'o}ra and Alessio Gorgi and Philippe Gouffon and Valerio Grassi and Aurelio F. Grillo and C. M. Grunfeld and Yann Guardincerri and Fausto Guarino and Germano P. Guedes and J. Guti{\'e}rrez and John D. Hague and John C. Hamilton and Patricia Hansen and Diego D. Harari and S. Harmsma and John L. Harton and Andreas Haungs and T. Hauschildt and Matthew D. Healy and Thomas Hebbeker and D. Heck and Carlos Hojvat and V. C. Holmes and Piotr Homola and J{\"o}rg H{\"o}randel and Andreas Horneffer and Milena Horvat and Miroslav Hrabovsky and T. Huege and Marco Iarlori and Antonio Insolia and F. Ionita and Antonio Italiano and M. Kaducak and K-H. Kampert and Bianca Keilhauer and Ernesto Kemp and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Robert Knapik and Johannes Knapp and Dy. Holm Koang and Andreas Kopmann and A. Krieger and Olaf Kr{\"o}mer and Daniel K{\"u}mpel and Norbert Kunka and Alexander Kusenko and Giovanni La Rosa and Cyril Lachaud and Bruno L. Lago and Didier Lebrun and Patrick Brun and J. S. H. Lee and M. Oliveira and Antoine Letessier-Selvon and Matthias J. Leuthold and Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon and R. Rebolo Lopez and {\'A}ngeles L{\'o}pez Ag{\"u}era and Julio Lozano Bahilo and Maria Concetta Maccarone and Carla Macolino and Simone Maldera and M. Malek and Giovanni Mancarella and M{\'o}nica E. Mance{\~n}ido and Du{\vs}an Mand{\'a}t and Paul Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and Ioana Codrina Mariş and Daniele Martello and Jose Antonio Lucio Martinez and Oscar Mart'inez Bravo and H. J. Mathes and James Matthews and J. A. Matthews and Giorgio Matthiae and Daniela Maurizio and Peter Mazur and Thomas McCauley and M. Mcewen and R. R. Mcneil and M. C. Medina and Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco and Athina Meli and Diego G. Melo and Ezio A. Menichetti and A. V. Menschikov and Christine Meurer and Rishi Meyhandan and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Gennaro Miele and William H. Miller and Silvia Mollerach and Maria Monasor and D. Monnier Ragaigne and François Montanet and B. Morales and Carlo Morello and E. Moreno and Juan Carlos Gonzalez Moreno and Christopher L. Morris and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Marcio Aparecido Muller and Roberto Mussa and Gianni Navarra and Jos{\'e} Luis Pastor Navarro and Sergio S{\'a}nchez Navas and Lukas Nellen and Catherine Newman-Holmes and David Newton and Thanh Loan Nguyen Thi and Nils Nierstenh{\"o}fer and Dave F. Nitz and Dalibor Nosek and Libor No{\vz}ka and J. Oehlschl{\"a}ger and Tohru Ohnuki and Angela V. Olinto and V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja and M. Ortiz and S. Ostapchenko and Lidia Otero and Daniel Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Johanna A. Pallotta and Gonzalo Parente and Etienne Parizot and Sandra Parlati and Sergio Pastor and M. Patel and Thomas Cantzon Paul and V. Pavlidou and K'evin Payet and Miroslav Pech and J. Pçkala and Rodrigo Pelayo and I. Pepe and Lorenzo M Perrone and Sergio Petrera and Paolo Petrinca and Yevgeniy Petrov and Dieppham Ngoc and Dongpham Ngoc and T. N. Pham Thi and Ana Pichel and Ricardo Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and M{\'a}rio Pimenta and Teguayco Pinto and Valerio Pirronello and Ofelia Pisanti and Manuel Platino and Jonathan Pochon and Troy A. Porter and Paolo Privitera and Michael Prouza and E. Quel and Julian Rautenberg and Steve Reucroft and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and F. A. S. Rezende and Jan Ř{\'i}dk{\'y} and Simone Riggi and Markus Risse and C. Rivi{\`e}re and Vincenzo Rizi and Michael D. Roberts and C. Robledo and G. R. Gonzalvo Rodriguez and Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez Fr{\'i}as and Julio Rodr{\'i}guez Martino and Jorge Rub'en Rodriguez Rojo and I. Rodr{\'i}guez-Cabo and G. Ros and Jaime Rosado and Markus Roth and B. Rouill{\'e}-d’Orfeuil and Esteban Roulet and Adri{\'a}n C. Rovero and Francesco Salamida and Humberto Ibarguen Salazar and Gaetano Salina and Federico Andr{\'e}s S{\'a}nchez and Marcos Santander and Catarina Espirito Santo and Edivaldo Moura Santos and F. Sarazin and Subir Sarkar and Ricardo Sato and Viviana Scherini and Harald Schieler and Fabian Schmidt and Thomas Schmidt and Olaf Scholten and Petr Schov{\'a}nek and Fabian Sch{\"u}ssler and Sergio J. Sciutto and M. Scuderi and A. Segreto and Dmitri V. Semikoz and Mariangela Settimo and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Iv{\'a}n Sidelnik and Beatriz B. Siffert and Guenter Sigl and N. Smetniansky-De Grande and Andrzej Śmiałkowski and Radom{\'i}r {\vS}m{\'i}da and Austin Smith and B. E. Smith and Gregory R. Snow and P. Sokolsky and Paul Sommers and J. Sorokin and Harold M Spinka and Ruben Squartini and E. Strazzeri and A. Stutz and Federico Suarez and Tiina Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John D. Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and J. Takahashi and Alejandro Tamashiro and Alessio Tamburro and Oana Gradinaru Tascau and Rodica Tcaciuc and D. Thomas and Rolando Ticona and Javier Tiffenberg and C. Timmermans and Wieslaw Tkaczyk and Carlos Jos{\'e} Todero Peixoto and Bernardo Tom{\'e} and Aurelio S. Tonachini and Domenico Torresi and Petr Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}{\vc}ek and Arun Kumar Tripathi and G. Tristram and D. Tscherniakhovski and Mat{\'i}as Tueros and V. Tunnicliffe and Ralf Ulrich and Michael Unger and Martin Urban and Jose F. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and In{\'e}s Vali{\~n}o and Laura Valore and A. M. Berg and V'eronique Van Elewyck and Ricardo A. Vazquez and Darko Veberi{\vc} and Alejandro L. Veiga and Alfonso Velarde and Tonia M. Venters and Valerio Verzi and Mariela Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and Lou Voyvodic and Hernan Wahlberg and Oscar Wainberg and Tilo Waldenmaier and Pablo Walker and David S. Warner and Alan Andrew Watson and Stefan Westerhoff and Grzegorz Wieczorek and Lawrence Richard Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Chris Wileman and M. G. Winnick and H. Wu and Brian Wundheiler and Jianchu Xu and T. Yamamoto and Patrick William Younk and Enrique Zas and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Andreas Zech and A. Zepeda and Michael S. Ziolkowski},
  journal={Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={318},
  pages={938-943}
}
Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that… 
Measurements of cosmic rays at the highest energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory indicate with unprecedented statistics that the flux of cosmic rays is strongly suppressed above 4 × 1019 eV. The suppression is consistent with the
On active galactic nuclei as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays
We measure the correlation between sky coordinates of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays
The Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays
The search for the origin of cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV has made considerable progress during the past few years. With new data from the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment in Utah and
Search for extragalactic sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays
Possible extragalactic sources of cosmic rays with energies above 4 × 1019 eV detected at the Yakutsk EAS array are sought. The correlation of the shower arrival directions with objects from Véron’s
ON THE POSSIBLE ASSOCIATION OF ULTRA HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS WITH NEARBY ACTIVE GALAXIES
Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies higher than 57 EeV, which suggests a correlation
Physical conditions in nearby active galaxies correlated with ultra-high-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
We analyze the active-galaxy correlation reported in 2007 by the Pierre Auger Collaboration. The signal diminishes if the correlation-function approach (counting all "source–event" pairs and not only
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Studies of clustering in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10 EeV
If clustering of the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays is discovered, this would provide important information about their origin, composition, and the galactic and extragalactic
Origin of Cosmic Rays
TLDR
The observed isotropy of the cosmic rays incident on the earth is claimed to be a consequence of a magnetic field assumed to exist in interstellar space, which is compared with the average interstellar field of 10−20 gauss.
Arrival directions of the most energetic cosmic rays.
TLDR
The arrival directions of the most energetic cosmic rays detected by several air shower experiments are examined, finding that data taken by different air shower arrays show positive correlations, indicating a nonuniform arrival direction distribution.
Study of Small-Scale Anisotropy of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays Observed in Stereo by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Detector
The High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) experiment is an air fluorescence detector which, operating in stereo mode, has a typical angular resolution of 0 .6 and is sensitive to cosmic rays with
Measurement of the UHECR energy spectrum using data from the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
At the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is close to completion, an exposure that significantly exceeds the largest forerunner experiments has already been accumulated. We report a
Evidence for a primary cosmic-ray particle with energy 10**20-eV
Relations and assumptions used in estimating the size of a cosmic air shower recorded at the MIT Volcano Ranch station are discussed. The total number of particles produced is estimated as 5 x 10/sup
Hybrid Performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A key feature of the Pierre Auger Observatory is its hybrid design, in which ultra high energy cosmic rays are detected simultaneously by fluorescence telescopes and a ground array. The two
A catalogue of quasars and active nuclei: 12th edition
TLDR
This catalogue is a compilation of all known AGN in a compact and convenient form and includes position and redshift as well as photometry ( U, B, V ) and 6 cm flux densities when available.
...
1
2
...