Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

@article{Abraham2007CorrelationOT,
  title={Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects},
  author={J. Abraham and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and C. Aguirre and D. Allard and I. Allekotte and J. Allen and P. Allison and C. Alvarez and J. {\'A}lvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and M. Ambrosio and L. Anchordoqui and S. Andringa and A. Anzalone and C. Aramo and S. Argir{\`o} and K. Arisaka and E. Armengaud and F. Arneodo and F. Arqueros and T. Asch and H. Asorey and P. Assis and B. S. Atulugama and J. Aublin and M. Ave and G. Avila and T. B{\"a}cker and D. Badagnani and A. F. Barbosa and D. Barnhill and S. Barroso and P. Bauleo and J. Beatty and T. Beau and B. Becker and K. Becker and J. Bellido and S. BenZvi and C. Berat and T. Bergmann and P. Bernardini and X. Bertou and P. Biermann and P. Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and F. Blanco and P. Blasi and C. Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and M. Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and C. Bonifazi and R. Bonino and M. Boratav and J. Brack and P. Brogueira and W. C. Brown and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and N. Busca and K. S. Caballero-Mora and B. Cai and D. Camin and R. Caruso and W. Carvalho and A. Castellina and O. Catalano and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon-Boado and R. Cester and J. Chauvin and A. Chiavassa and J. Chinellato and A. Chou and J. Chye and P. Clark and R. Clay and E. Colombo and R. Conceiç{\~a}o and B. Connolly and F. Contreras and J. Coppens and A. Cordier and U. Cotti and S. Coutu and C. Covault and A. Creusot and J. Cronin and S. Dagoret-Campagne and K. Daumiller and B. Dawson and R. Almeida and C. Donato and S. Jong and G. Vega and W. D. M. Junior and J. D. M. Neto and I. Mitri and V. Souza and L. Peral and O. Deligny and A. Selva and C. Fratte and H. Dembinski and C. Giulio and J. Diaz and C. Dobrigkeit and J. D'Olivo and D. Dornic and A. Dorofeev and J. Anjos and M. Dova and D. D'urso and M. DuVernois and R. Engel and L. N. Epele and M. Erdmann and C. Escobar and A. Etchegoyen and P. S. Luis and H. Falcke and G. Farrar and A. Fauth and N. Fazzini and A. Fern{\'a}ndez and F. Ferrer and S. Ferry and B. Fick and A. Filevich and A. Filipcic and I. Fleck and R. Fonte and C. Fracchiolla and W. Fulgione and B. Garcia and D. G{\'a}mez and D. Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and X. Garrido and H. Geenen and G. Gelmini and H. Gemmeke and P. Ghia and M. Giller and H. Glass and M. Gold and G. Golup and F. G. Albarrac{\'i}n and M. G. Berisso and R. G. Herrero and P. Gonçalves and M. G. Amaral and D. Gonzalez and J. A. Gonz{\'a}lez and M. Gonz{\'a}lez and D. G{\'o}ra and A. Gorgi and P. Gouffon and V. Grassi and A. Grillo and C. Grunfeld and Y. Guardincerri and F. Guarino and G. Guedes and J. Guti{\'e}rrez and J. Hague and J. Hamilton and P. Hansen and D. Harari and S. Harmsma and J. Harton and A. Haungs and T. Hauschildt and M. Healy and T. Hebbeker and D. Heck and C. Hojvat and V. C. Holmes and P. Homola and J. H{\"o}randel and A. Horneffer and M. Horvat and M. Hrabovskẏ and T. Huege and M. Iarlori and A. Insolia and F. Ionita and A. Italiano and M. Kaducak and K. Kampert and B. Keilhauer and E. Kemp and R. M. Kieckhafer and H. Klages and M. Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and R. Knapik and J. Knapp and D. Koang and A. Kopmann and A. Krieger and O. Kr{\"o}mer and D. K{\"u}mpel and N. Kunka and A. Kusenko and G. Rosa and C. Lachaud and B. Lago and D. Lebrun and P. Brun and J. Lee and M. S. Oliveira and A. Letessier-Selvon and M. Leuthold and I. Lhenry-Yvon and R. L{\'o}pez and A. Ag{\"u}era and J. Bahilo and M. C. Maccarone and C. Macolino and S. Maldera and M. Malek and G. Mancarella and M. Mance{\~n}ido and D. Mand{\'a}t and P. Mantsch and A. Mariazzi and I. Maris and D. Martello and J. L. Mart{\'i}nez and O. Bravo and H. Mathes and J. Matthews and G. Matthiae and D. Maurizio and P. Mazur and T. Mccauley and M. Mcewen and R. Mcneil and M. Medina and G. Medina-Tanco and A. Meli and D. Melo and E. Menichetti and A. Menschikov and C. Meurer and R. Meyhandan and M. I. Micheletti and G. Miele and W. Miller and S. Mollerach and M. Monasor and D. Ragaigne and F. Montanet and B. Morales and C. Morello and E. Moreno and J. C. Moreno and C. Morris and M. Mostaf{\'a} and M. Muller and R. Mussa and G. Navarra and J. L. Navarro and S. Navas and L. Nellen and C. Newman-Holmes and D. Newton and T. N. Thi and N. Nierstenhoefer and D. Nitz and D. Nosek and L. No{\vz}ka and J. Oehlschlaeger and T. Ohnuki and A. Olinto and V. Olmos-Gilbaja and M. Ortiz and S. Ostapchenko and L. Otero and D. Selmi-Dei and M. Palatka and J. Pallotta and G. Parente and E. Parizot and S. Parlati and S. Pastor and M. Patel and T. Paul and Vasiliki Pavlidou and K. Payet and M. Pech and J. Pçkala and R. Pelayo and I. Pepe and L. Perrone and S. Petrera and P. Petrinca and Y. Petrov and Dieppham Ngoc and D. Ngoc and T. P. Thi and A. Pichel and R. Piegaia and T. Pierog and M. Pimenta and T. Pinto and V. Pirronello and O. Pisanti and M. Platino and J. Pochon and T. Porter and P. Privitera and M. Prouza and E. Quel and J. Rautenberg and S. Reucroft and B. Revenu and F. Rezende and J. Ř{\'i}dk{\'y} and S. Riggi and M. Risse and C. Rivi{\`e}re and V. Rizi and M. Roberts and C. Robledo and G. Rodriguez and D. Fr{\'i}as and J. Martino and J. Rojo and I. Rodr{\'i}guez-Cabo and G. Ros and J. Rosado and M. Roth and B. Rouill{\'e}-d’Orfeuil and E. Roulet and A. Rovero and F. Salamida and H. Salazar and G. Salina and F. S{\'a}nchez and M. Santander and C. E. Santo and E. Santos and F. Sarazin and S. Sarkar and R. Sato and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and F. Schmidt and T. Schmidt and O. Scholten and Petr Schovanek and F. Sch{\"u}ssler and S. Sciutto and M. Scuderi and A. Segreto and D. Semikoz and M. Settimo and R. Shellard and I. Sidelnik and B. B. Siffert and G. Sigl and N. S. Grande and A. Śmiałkowski and Radomir Smida and A. Smith and B. Smith and G. Snow and P. Sokolsky and P. Sommers and J. Sorokin and H. Spinka and R. Squartini and E. Strazzeri and A. Stutz and F. Suarez and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and A. Supanitsky and M. Sutherland and J. Swain and Z. Szadkowski and J. Takahashi and A. Tamashiro and A. Tamburro and O. Tascau and R. Tcaciuc and D. Thomas and R. Ticona and J. Tiffenberg and C. Timmermans and W. Tkaczyk and C. Peixoto and B. Tom{\'e} and A. Tonachini and D. Torresi and P. Travnicek and A. Tripathi and G. Tristram and D. Tscherniakhovski and M. Tueros and V. Tunnicliffe and R. Ulrich and M. Unger and M. Urban and J. Galicia and I. Vali{\~n}o and L. Valore and A. D. Berg and V. Elewyck and R. Vazquez and D. Veberic and A. Veiga and A. Velarde and T. Venters and V. Verzi and M. Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and S. Vorobiov and L. Voyvodic and H. Wahlberg and O. Wainberg and T. Waldenmaier and P. Walker and D. Warner and A. Watson and S. Westerhoff and G. Wieczorek and L. Wiencke and B. Wilczynska and H. Wilczynski and C. Wileman and M. G. Winnick and H. Wu and B. Wundheiler and J. Xu and T. Yamamoto and P. Younk and E. Zas and D. Zavrtanik and M. Zavrtanik and A. Zech and A. Zepeda and M. Ziolkowski},
  journal={Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={318},
  pages={938-943}
}
Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that… Expand
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