Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

@article{Abraham2008CorrelationOT,
  title={Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei},
  author={John Abraham and Pedro Abreu and Marco Aglietta and C. Aguirre and Denis Allard and Ingomar Allekotte and J. Allen and P. Allison and Jaime {\'A}lvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and M. Ambrosio and Luis. Anchordoqui and Sofia Andringa and Anna Anzalone and C. Aramo and S. Argir{\`o} and Katsushi Arisaka and Eric Armengaud and Francesco Arneodo and Fernando Arqueros and T. Asch and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and P. Assis and B. S. Atulugama and Julien Aublin and Maximo Ave and Gualberto Avila and Tobias Baecker and D. Badagnani and Ademarlaudo F. Barbosa and David Barnhill and S. L. C. Barroso and Pablo Bauleo and James J. Beatty and Tristan Beau and B. R. Becker and Kurt H. Becker and J Almirall Bellido and Segev BenZvi and Corinne Berat and T. Bergmann and Paolo Bernardini and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and P. Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and Francisco Blanco and Pasquale Blasi and Carla Bleve and H. Bluemer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and C. Bonifazi and R. Bonino and Jeffrey Brack and Pedro Brogueira and William C Brown and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and Ross E. Burton and Nicol{\'a}s G. Busca and K. S. Caballero-Mora and Bei Cai and David V. Camin and Laurenţiu I. Caramete and Rossella Caruso and Washington Rodrigues de Carvalho and Antonella Castellina and Osvaldo Catalano and Gabriella Cataldi and Lorenzo Cazon and Rosanna Cester and Jo{\"e} Chauvin and Andrea Chiavassa and Jose Augusto Chinellato and Aaron S. Chou and J. Chye and Roger William Clay and E. Colombo and R{\'u}ben Conceiç{\~a}o and Brian M. Connolly and Fernando Contreras and Joseph Coppens and Alain Cordier and U. Cotti and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and Alexandre Creusot and A. Criss and James W. Cronin and A. Curutiu and Sylvie Dagoret-Campagne and Kai Daumiller and Bruce R. Dawson and Rogerio M. de Almeida and Cinzia De Donato and Sims Bg and Gonzalo de la Vega and W. J. M. de Mello and Jo{\~a}o de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Vitor de Souza and Luis del Peral and Olivier Deligny and A. Della Selva and C. Delle Fratte and Hans Peter Dembinski and Claudio Di Giulio and J. C. Chirinos Diaz and P. N. Diep and Carola Dobrigkeit and Juan Carlos D'Olivo and P. N. Dong and Damien Dornic and Alexei V. Dorofeev and Jo{\~a}o C. Anjos and M. T. Dova and Domenico D'urso and Ioana Duţan and Michael DuVernois and Ralph Engel and L. N. Epele and Carlos Ourivio Escobar and Alberto Etchegoyen and Pedro Facal San Luis and Heino Falcke and Glennys R. Farrar and A. Campos Fauth and Norberto Fazzini and Francesc Ferrer and Steven Ferry and Brian E. Fick and Alberto Filevich and Andrej Filipcic and I. Fleck and Claudia Fracchiolla and Walter Fulgione and Bruce Rafael Mellado Garcia and D. Garcia Gaimez and Diego Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and X. Garrido and Heiko Geenen and Graciela B. Gelmini and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and Maria Giller and Henry D. Glass and M. S. Gold and Geraldina Golup and Flavia Alejandra G{\'o}mez Albarrac{\'i}n and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and R{\'a}ul Gomez Herrero and P. Gonçalves and M. Gonçalves do Amaral and Daniel Gonzalez and Jos{\'e} Mar{\'i}a Gonz{\'a}lez Gonz{\'a}lezc and Mariana Carrillo-Gonz{\'a}lez and Dariusz G{\'o}ra and Alessio Gorgi and Philippe Gouffon and Valerio Grassi and Aurelio F. Grillo and C. M. Grunfeld and Yann Guardincerri and Fausto Guarino and Germano P. Guedes and J. Guti{\'e}rrez and John D. Hague and John C. Hamilton and Patricia Hansen and Diego D. Harari and S. Harmsma and John L. Harton and Andreas Haungs and T. Hauschildt and Matthew D. Healy and T. Hebbeker and G. Hebrero and D. Heck and Carlos Hojvat and V. C. Holmes and Piotr Homola and Joerg Rudolf Hoerandel and Andreas Horneffer and Milena Horvat and M. Hrabovsky and T. Huege and M. H. Hussain and Marco Larlori and Antonio Insolia and F. Ionita and Antonio Italiano and M. Kaducak and K-H. Kampert and T. Karova and Bal{\'a}zs K{\'e}gl and Bianca Keilhauer and Ernesto Kemp and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Robert Knapik and Johannes Knapp and V. H. Koanga and A. Krieger and Olaf Kroemer and Daniel Kuempel and Norbert Kunka and Alexander Kusenko and Giovanni La Rosa and Cyril Lachaud and Bruno L. Lago and Denis Lebrun and Paul L. G. Lebrun and Jeehiun K Lee and M. Oliveira and R. Rebolo Lopez and Antoine Letessier-Selvon and Matthias J. Leuthold and Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon and {\'A}ngeles L{\'o}pez Ag{\"u}era and Julio Lozano Bahilo and R. Luna Garc{\'i}a and Maria Concetta Maccarone and Carla Macolino and Simone Maldera and Giovanni Mancarella and M{\'o}nica E. Mance{\~n}ido and D. Mandatat and Paul Matthew Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and Ioana Codrina Mariş and H. R. Marquez Falcon and Daniele Martello and J. D. Martinez and Oscar Mart'inez Bravo and H. J. Mathes and J. A. Matthews and J. A. Matthews and Giorgio Matthiae and Daniela Maurizio and Peter Mazur and T. McCauley and M. Mcewen and R. R. Mcneil and M. C. Medina and Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco and Athina Meli and Diego G. Melo and Ezio A. Menichetti and A. V. Menschikov and Christine Meurer and Rishi Meyhandan and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Gennaro Miele and Warner A. Miller and Silvia Mollerach and Maria Monasor and D. Monnier Ragaigne and François Montanet and B. Morales and Carlo Morello and Juan Carlos Gonzalez Moreno and Christopher L. Morris and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Marcio Aparecido Muller and Roberto Mussa and Gianni Navarra and Jos{\'e} Luis Pastor Navarro and Sergio S{\'a}nchez Navas and Petr Ne{\vc}esal and Lukas Nellen and Catherine Newman-Holmes and David Newton and Pham Thi Tuyet Nhung and Nils Nierstenhoefer and Dave F. Nitz and Dalibor Nosek and Libor No{\vz}ka and J. Oehlschlaeger and Tohru Ohnuki and Angela V. Olinto and V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja and M. Ortiz and Fabrizio Ortolani and S. Ostapchenko and Lidia Otero and Noelia Pacheco and Daniel Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Gonzalo Parente and Etienne Parizot and Sandra Parlati and Sergio Pastor and M. Patel and Thomas Cantzon Paul and V Pavlidou and K'evin Payet and Miroslav Pech and Jan Pekala and Rodrigo Pelayo and I. Pepe and L. M. Perrone and Sergio Petrera and Paolo Petrinca and Yevgeniy Petrov and Ana Pichel and R. Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and M{\'a}rio Pimenta and Teguayco Pinto and Valerio Pirronello and Ofelia Pisanti and Manuel Platino and Jonathan Pochon and Paolo Privitera and Michael Prouza and E. Quel and Julian Rautenberg and A. Redondo and Steve Reucroft and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and F. A. S. Rezende and Jan Ř{\'i}dk{\'y} and Simone Riggi and Markus Risse and C. Rivi{\`e}re and Vincenzo Rizi and Michael D. Roberts and C. Robledo and G. R. Gonzalvo Rodriguez and Julio Rodr{\'i}guez Martino and Jorge Rub'en Rodriguez Rojo and I. Rodr{\'i}guez-Cabo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and G. Ros and Jaime Rosado and Markus Roth and B. Rouill{\'e}-d’Orfeuil and Esteban Roulet and A. C. Roverok and Francesco Salamida and Humberto Ibarguen Salazar and Gaetano Salina and F. S{\'a}nchez and M. Santander and Catarina Espirito Santo and Edivaldo Moura Santos and F. Sarazin and Subir Sarkar and Ricardo Sato and Viviana Scherini and Harald Schieler and A Schmidt and Fabian Schmidt and Thomas Schmidt and Olaf Scholten and Petr Schov{\'a}nek and F. Schuessler and Sergio J. Sciutto and M. Scuderi and A. Segreto and Dmitri V. Semikoz and Mariangela Settimo and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Iv{\'a}n Sidelnik and Beatriz B. Siffert and Gunter Sigl and N. Smetniansky-De Grande and Andrzej Śmiałkowski and Radom{\'i}r {\vS}m{\'i}da and Arnold G. Smith and B. E. Smith and Gregory R. Snow and P. Sokolsky and Paul Sommers and J. Sorokin and Harold M Spinka and Ruben Squartini and E. Strazzeri and A. Stutz and Federico Suarez and Tiina Suomijarvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and J. Takahashi and Alejandro Tamashiro and Alessio Tamburro and Oana Gradinaru Tascau and Rodica Tcaciuc and Nguyen T. Thao and D. Thomas and Rolando Ticona and Javier Tiffenberg and C. Timmermans and Wieslaw Tkaczyk and Carlos Jos{\'e} Todero Peixoto and Bernardo Tom{\'e} and Aurelio S. Tonachini and I. Torres and Petr Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}{\vc}ek and Arun Kumar Tripathi and G. Tristram and D. Tscherniakhovski and Mat{\'i}as Tueros and R. Ulrich and Michael Unger and Martin Urban and Jose F. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and In{\'e}s Vali{\~n}o and Laura Valore and A. M. Berg and V'eronique Van Elewyck and Ricardo A. Vazquez and Darko Veberi{\vc} and Alejandro L. Veiga and Alfonso Velarde and Tonia M. Venters and Valerio Verzi and Mariela Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and Lou Voyvodic and H. Wahlberg and Oscar Wainberg and David S. Warner and A. A. Watson and Stefan Westerhoff and Grzegorz Wieczorek and Lawrence Richard Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Chris Wileman and M. G. Winnick and H. Wu and Brian Wundheiler and T. Yamamoto and Patrick William Younk and Enrique Zas and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Andreas Zech and A. Zepeda and Michael S. Ziolkowski},
  journal={Astroparticle Physics},
  year={2008},
  volume={29},
  pages={188-204}
}
Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than similar to 6 x 10(19) eV and AGN at a distance less than similar to 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a… Expand

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