OBJECT Biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of gliomas are lacking. To elucidate new diagnostic and prognostic targets, a routine method is used to evaluate differences between the protein profile of normal and tumor cells. The object of the current study was to investigate novel differentially expressed proteins and their roles in gliomas. METHODS Differences in the protein profile were compared using 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using C6 glioma cells and rat astrocytes. The mRNA and protein expression of ANXA2, PGAM1, and CALR were analyzed in glioma tissues and normal brain tissues. The expression of ANXA2 in the U87 glioma cell line was interrupted using short interfering RNA duplexes, and the role of ANXA2 in the migration and invasiveness of glioma cells was assessed. The expression of ANXA2, PGAM1, and CALR was examined further by immunohistochemical analysis using 130 glioma samples obtained in patients, and their prognostic roles in gliomas were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS Significantly higher expression levels of ANXA2 and PGAM1 and a lower level of CALR were found in glioma samples than in the normal brain samples. ANXA2, PGAM1, and CALR expression correlated with the grade and survival of patients with gliomas. Multivariate analysis further revealed that ANXA2 was an independent prognostic marker for glioma. After ANXA2 expression was suppressed using short interfering RNA, U87 cells had decreased migratory and invasive capabilities in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Protein expression alterations in ANXA2, PGAM1, and CALR were found in gliomas, and ANXA2 provided a novel prognostic value.