Retinal artery embolization after carotid artery stenting: report of a case and review of literature
BACKGROUND We studied the relationship between serum levels of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and carotid stenosis in elderly patients with ischemic cerebral infarction. METHODS All patients >65 years of age with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebral infarction were enrolled. None received statins before enrollment. Patients were examined for carotid stenosis by ultrasound color Doppler, and serum sdLDL-C levels were measured using an automated method. RESULTS The 149 patients were distributed according to their carotid stenosis as without (n = 61) or with mild (n = 30), moderate (n = 34), or severe (n = 24) carotid stenosis. sdLDL-C levels increased significantly with increasing stenosis severity (0.54 ± 0.19, 0.71 ± 0.18, 0.98 ± 0.19, and 1.32 ± 0.17 mmol/L, respectively). Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that sdLDL-C levels and degree of carotid stenosis were positively correlated (r = 0.411; P < 0.001). Male sex, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, drinking, smoking, and sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with carotid stenosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that sdLDL-C levels are an independent risk factor of carotid stenosis (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS sdLDL-C levels are positively correlated with the severity of carotid stenosis, and are an independent risk factor in elderly patients with ischemic cerebral infarction.