Correlation and Causation.

@article{Ling1981CorrelationAC,
  title={Correlation and Causation.},
  author={Robert F. Ling and David A. Kenny},
  journal={Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year={1981},
  volume={77},
  pages={489}
}
The ideal method of science is the study of the direct influence of one condition on another in experiments in which all other possible causes of variation are eliminated. Unfortunately, causes of variation often seem to be beyond control. In the biological sciences, especially, one often has to deal with a group of characteristics or conditions which are correlated because of a complex of interacting, uncontrollable, and often obscure causes. The degree of correlation between two variables can… 
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