Correlates of male mating success in the ruff Philomachus pugnax, a lekking shorebird

Abstract

Male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), a lekking shorebird, can generally be divided into two morphs according to behavior and plumage coloration. Predominantly dark-colored, “independent” male ruffs defend small territories on a lek, whereas lighter colored “satellite” males are non-territorial and less site-faithful to a particular lek. The traits associated… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/BF00165962

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