Correlated evolution and independent contrasts.

@article{Price1997CorrelatedEA,
  title={Correlated evolution and independent contrasts.},
  author={Trevor D. Price},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={1997},
  volume={352 1352},
  pages={
          519-29
        }
}
  • T. Price
  • Published 29 April 1997
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
The use of the independent contrast method in comparative tests is studied. It is assumed that: (i) the traits under investigation are subject to natural selection; (ii) closely related species are similar because they share many characteristics of their niche, inherited from a common ancestor; and (iii) the current adaptive significance of the traits is the focus of investigation. The main objection to the use of species values in this case is that third variables which are shared by closely… Expand

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

TAXON SAMPLING, CORRELATED EVOLUTION, AND INDEPENDENT CONTRASTS
  • D. Ackerly
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2000
TLDR
The simulations showed that random samples, with respect to the traits under consideration, provide statistically robust estimates of trait correlations, but exact significance tests are highly dependent on appropriate branch length information; equal branch lengths maintain lower Type I error than alternative topological approaches, and adjusted critical values of the independent contrast correlation coefficient are provided. Expand
Comparative methods based on species mean values.
TLDR
This work considers estimation and hypothesis testing using two statistical models which explicitly justify the use of the species mean values, without the need to account for phylogenetic relationships, and uses a modification of the maximum-likelihood method to obtain an unbiased estimate of the regression slope. Expand
Rapidly evolving traits and the comparative method: how important is testing for phylogenetic signal?
TLDR
It is shown that the bird song parameters investigated are not correlated to their phylogenetic history, indicating that certain aspects of bird song can be subject to rates of evolution that are much more rapid than speciation events. Expand
Using phylogenetic information and the comparative method to evaluate hypotheses in macroecology
TLDR
The usefulness of the comparative method is illustrated using the phylogeny of the genus Sebastes (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes), together with data on the body size–latitudinal range relationship to estimate the effect of phylogenetic history on the observed macroecological pattern. Expand
Calculating independent contrasts for the comparative study of substitution rates.
TLDR
Studying a mathematical model of trait and rate evolution, it is shown that the special nature of substitution rates can lead to a severe loss of power for standard comparative methods, and two modifications of the standard methods are proposed that can mitigate these problems. Expand
Rethinking phylogenetic comparative methods.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the susceptibility to singular events is indeed a recurring problem in comparative biology that links several seemingly unrelated controversies, and it is suggested that one way to refine the authors' inferences is to re-imagine phylogenies as probabilistic graphical models. Expand
Rethinking phylogenetic comparative methods
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the susceptibility to singular events is indeed a recurring problem in comparative biology that links several seemingly unrelated controversies, and it is suggested that one way to refine inferences is to re-imagine phylogenies as probabilistic graphical models. Expand
Phylogenetic Analysis and Comparative Data: A Test and Review of Evidence
TLDR
Simulations show λ to be a statistically powerful index for measuring whether data exhibit phylogenetic dependence or not and whether it has low rates of Type I error, which demonstrates that even partial information on phylogeny will improve the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses. Expand
Comparative analyses for adaptive radiations.
  • P. Harvey, A. Rambaut
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2000
TLDR
It is shown here that under several models of adaptive character evolution and coevolution during an adaptive radiation, which result in closely related species being more similar to each other than to more distantly related species, cross-species analyses are statistically more appropriate than contrast analyses. Expand
An Introduction to Phylogenetically Based Statistical Methods, with a New Method for Confidence Intervals on Ancestral Values
TLDR
Three phylogenetically based statistical methods are presented, including phylogenetically independent contrasts, Monte Carlo computer simulations to obtain null distributions of test statistics, and phylogenetic autocorrelation, which allow traditional topics in comparative and ecological physiology to be addressed with greater rigor. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES
What does the Comparative Method Reveal About Adaptation?
TLDR
It is shown that many different evolutionary mechanisms can, in principle, account for any one interspecific pattern, and it is argued that these confounded mechanisms can only be unraveled if patterns of selection or genetic variation and covariation are directly measured in many species within a clade. Expand
Seeking the evolutionary regression coefficient: an analysis of what comparative methods measure.
  • M. Pagel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1993
TLDR
Comparative statistical techniques are able to recover the historical trends of evolution, that is, the ways in which evolution has proceeded along the branches of the phylogenetic tree, from analysis of the variation among the contemporary species of a phylogeny. Expand
Phylogenies and the Comparative Method
TLDR
A method of correcting for the phylogeny has been proposed, which specifies a set of contrasts among species, contrasts that are statistically independent and can be used in regression or correlation studies. Expand
PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF THE CORRELATED EVOLUTION OF CONTINUOUS CHARACTERS: A SIMULATION STUDY
We use computer simulation to compare the statistical properties of several methods that have been proposed for estimating the evolutionary correlation between two continuous traits, and defineExpand
Applications of phylogenetically independent contrasts : a mixed progress report
TLDR
It is argued that it is premature at this point to insist upon particular phylogenetically based approaches to comparative analysis, even though pressure is mounting to reject conventional practices of calculating regressions and correlations from trait values of taxa in favor of PICs. Expand
PHYLOGENY AND COADAPTATION OF THERMAL PHYSIOLOGY IN LIZARDS: A REANALYSIS
TLDR
A phylogenetic approach was developed, overlaying the thermal data on a phylogeny of the six genera and applying a "minimum evolution" algorithm to estimate ancestral values at nodes, which concluded that thermoregulatory behavior and physiology were at least partially coadapted. Expand
TESTING HYPOTHESES OF CORRELATED EVOLUTION USING PHYLOGENETICALLY INDEPENDENT CONTRASTS: SENSITIVITY TO DEVIATIONS FROM BROWNIAN MOTION
We examined the statistical performance (in terms of type I error rates) of Felsenstein's (1985, Am. Nat. 125:1-15) comparative method of phylogenetically independent contrasts for test- ingExpand
Procedures for the Analysis of Comparative Data Using Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts
TLDR
Any (continuous) trait that is inherited from ancestors is appropriate for analysis, regardless of the mechanism of inheritance (e.g., genetic or cultural), according to Felsenstein's method. Expand
Evolution of ecological differences in the Old World leaf warblers
TLDR
A phylogeny is used for eight sympatric species of warbler in the genusPhylloscopus, based on their mitochondrial DNA sequences, to remove the effects of historical legacy, and finds strong support for adaptive interpretations of among-species variation in habitat selection, prey-size choice and feeding method. Expand
Ecomorphology, Performance Capability, and Scaling of West Indian Anolis Lizards: An Evolutionary Analysis
TLDR
The ecomorphological hypotheses that morphology, performance capability, ecology and behavior have evolved synchronously have been confirmed using the Anolis lizards of Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...