A soluble actin binding protein of Dictyostelium discoideum cells has been extracted and purified from precipitated actin-myosin complexes. This protein with a relative molecular mass of 55 kDa has been named coronin because of its association with crown-shaped cell surface projections of growth-phase D. discoideum cells. In aggregating cells, which respond most sensitively to the chemoattractant cyclic AMP, coronin is accumulated at the front where surface projections are directed towards a cAMP source. Since these cells can quickly change shape and polarity, it follows that coronin is rapidly reshuffled within the cells during motion and chemotactic orientation. The cDNA derived sequence of coronin indicates a protein of 49 kDa, consisting of an amino-terminal domain with similarities to the beta subunits of G proteins and a carboxy-terminal domain with a high tendency for alpha-helical structure. It is hypothesized that coronin is implicated in the transmission of chemotactic signals from cAMP receptors in the plasma membrane through G proteins to the cortical cytoskeleton, whose structure and activity is locally modulated.