Alterations in regional vascular geometry produced by theoretical stent implantation influence distributions of wall shear stress: analysis of a curved coronary artery using 3D computational fluid dynamics modeling
Mechanisms of in-stent restenosis are not fully understood. Shear stress is known to play a role in plaque and thrombus formation and is sensitive to changes in regional vessel geometry. Hence, we evaluated the regional changes in 3-D geometry and shear stress induced by stent placement in coronary arteries of pigs.Methods. 3-D reconstruction was performed, applying a combined angiographic and IVUS technique (ANGUS), from seven Wallstents (diameter 3.5 (n=3) and 5mm (n=4)), which were implanted in seven coronary arteries of five pigs. This 3-D geometry was used to calculate locally the curvature, while the shear stress distribution was obtained by computational fluid dynamics. Local changes in shear stress were obtained at the entrance and exit of the stent for baseline (0. 65+/-0.22 ml/s) and hyperemic flow (2.60+/-0.86 ml/s) conditions. Results. After stent implantation, the curvature increased by 121% at the entrance and by 100% at the exit of the stent, resulting in local changes in shear stress. In general, at the entrance of the stent local maxima in shear stress were generated, while at the exit both local maxima and minima in shear stress were observed (p<0.05). Additionally, the shear stress at the entrance and exit of the stent were correlated with the local curvature (r: 0.30-0.84).Conclusion. Stent implantation changes 3-D vessel geometry in such a way that regions with decreased and increased shear stress occur close to the stent edges. These changes might be related to the asymmetric patterns of in-stent restenosis.