HTL V -1 infection is strongly linked to the subse quent development of adult T-cell leukaemia/lym phoma and HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM), which is also referred to as tropical spastic parapar esis (TSP). It is also associated with other inflamma tory conditions but causes asymptomatic lifelong infection in the majority of individuals.1-3 Ocular manifestations associated with HTL V-I infection have been documented, particularly in Japan, and include a steroid-resistant vasculitis4 and a granu lomatous or non-granulomatous uveitis.5 However, the exact role of HTL V-I in the pathogenesis of these disorders remains uncertain.6 In keeping with previous reports, our patients' anterior uveitides resolved completely with topical steroids. However, the development in case 1 of HAM 3 months after the initial presentation is in contrast with the results of a recent study of 32 patients with HTLV-I associated uveitis in which no patient developed neurological disease. Anterior uveitis has been described in patients with pre existent HAMITSP? HTL V-I is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean, Melanesia, Central Africa and parts of Central and South America, and in peoples who have migrated from these regions. Thus amongst the Afro-Carib bean community in the United Kingdom, the prevalence of HTLV-I is 2%,8 although its preva lence in those with uveitis is unknown. The infection may be acquired by vertical transmission, as in case 2, and this emphasises the importance of a family history in the diagnosis and counselling of patients found to be HTLV-I positive. Although the cause of uveitis in these two cases was ascribed to HTLV-I infection without intra ocular biopsy, they highlight the need to consider HTLV-I infection in patients belonging to at-risk groups who present with uveitis of unknown aetiol ogy, and the need for further studies into the prevalence of positive HTL V -I serology in such patients.