Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

  title={Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification},
  author={Ove Hoegh‐Guldberg and Peter J. Mumby and Anthony J. Hooten and Robert S. Steneck and Pl Greenfield and Edgardo D. Gomez and C. Drew Harvell and Peter F. Sale and Alastair J. Edwards and Ken Caldeira and Nancy Knowlton and C. Mark Eakin and Roberto Iglesias-Prieto and Nyawira A. Muthiga and Roger Bradbury and Alfonse M. Dubi and Marea Eleni Hatziolos},
  pages={1737 - 1742}
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef… 
Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change
Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet. In addition to their value in terms of biodiversity, coral reefs provide food and resources for over 500
The Impact of Climate Change on Coral Reef Ecosystems
Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and changing land use have dramatically altered the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and
Bleaching of Coral Reefs Due to Ocean Acidification and Warming
Climate change is impacting marine ecosystems in a multitude of ways. Consequences of greenhouse gas emissions, due to anthropogenic factors, include acidification of the ocean and increased global
On the potential for ocean acidification to be a general cause of ancient reef crises
Anthropogenic rise in the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere leads to global warming and acidification of the oceans. Ocean acidification (OA) is harmful to many organisms but especially
Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on coral reefs
The projections here for conditions on coral reefs are dire, but provide the most up-to-date assessment of what the changing climate and ocean acidification mean for the persistence of coral reefs.
Coral Reef Ecosystems under Climate Change and Ocean Acidification
Coral reefs are found in a wide range of environments, where they provide food and habitat to a large range of organisms as well as other ecological goods and services. Warm-water coral reefs, for
The threat of climate change to coral reefs
Coral reefs are the “rainforests” of the oceans, containing the highest diversity of marine organisms. They are highly productive and of great value for populations in tropical coastal areas. All
Response of Coral Reefs to Global Warming
The atmospheric CO2 crossed over 400 ppm and we must prepare for a “+2 °C world” during this century. Coral reefs are directly related to each scenario of global warming: increase in CO2 results in


Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs
The results suggest that the thermal tolerances of reef-building corals are likely to be exceeded every year within the next few decades, and suggests that unrestrained warming cannot occur without the loss and degradation of coral reefs on a global scale.
Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders
Comparing bleaching, productivity, and calcification responses of crustose coralline algae and branching and branching coral species in response to acidification and warming suggests sensitive reef-building species such as CCA may be pushed beyond their thresholds for growth and survival within the next few decades.
Low coral cover in a high‐CO2 world
Coral reefs generally exist within a relatively narrow band of temperatures, light, and seawater aragonite saturation states. The growth of coral reefs is minimal or nonexistent outside this
Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs
International integration of management strategies that support reef resilience need to be vigorously implemented, and complemented by strong policy decisions to reduce the rate of global warming.
Global Climate Change and Coral Bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef. Final Report to the State of Queensland Greenhouse Taskforce through the Department of Natural Resources and Mines
The waters of the Great Barrier Reef are warming and are predicted to continue to do so at an accelerated rate through the 21st Century. The increasing temperatures will lead to increased levels of
The future of coral reefs
  • N. Knowlton
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
The fossil record suggests that corals as a group are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that associate with them, whose habitat requirements may be less stringent.
Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs
It is shown that Caribbean reefs became susceptible to alternative stable states once the urchin mortality event of 1983 confined the majority of grazing to parrotfishes, and critical thresholds of grazing and coral cover beyond which resilience is lost are defined.
Future Scenarios: a Review of Modelling Efforts to Predict the Future of Coral Reefs in an Era of Climate Change
The link between elevated temperatures and coral bleaching in recent decades leads to speculation that anthropogenic climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of coral bleaching events.
Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification
Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to ocean acidification, causing significant reductions in the growth of crustose coralline algae. Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric
Multiple disturbances and the global degradation of coral reefs: are reef fishes at risk or resilient?
The diversity of fish communities was found to be negatively and linearly correlated to disturbance-mediated coral loss, and the long-term consequences of coral loss through coral bleaching and crown-of-thorn starfish outbreaks may be much more substantial than the short-term effects currently documented.