Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies
OBJECTIVE Alterations in plasma concentrations of several trace elements have been reported to occur in type-1 diabetes mellitus. These micronutrients are suspected to have a role in pathogenesis and progression of the disease. METHODS In a comparative analysis, the plasma concentration of copper, zinc and magnesium was estimated in 37 patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus and 25 healthy non-diabetic subjects at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Trace elements were estimated using a GBC 902 double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS Mean plasma concentrations of copper and magnesium were comparable between diabetic patients and control subjects. Plasma zinc levels were significantly higher (P=0.022) in diabetic patients (17.78 0.6 micromol/L) as compared to controls (15.80 0.75 micromol/L). Glycemic control and presence of microalbuminuria did not influence the plasma levels of copper, zinc and magnesium. CONCLUSION Plasma zinc levels are significantly higher in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients, while plasma copper and magnesium levels are not significantly altered. No effect of sex, glycemic control or presence of microalbuminuria could be demonstrated on plasma concentration of trace elements in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients.