Coordination of legs during straight walking and turning in Drosophila melanogaster

  title={Coordination of legs during straight walking and turning in Drosophila melanogaster},
  author={Roland Strauss and Martin Heisenberg},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
SummaryLeg coordination of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using frame-by-frame film analysis. 1.For fastest walking alternating tripod coordination is observed which slightly deviates towards tetrapody as a function of step period. During acceleration or deceleration legs may transiently recover in diagonal pairs.2.Mean step length increases with step frequency.3.Mean recovery stroke duration increases with step period and plateaus beyond a period of about 110 ms. Middle legs recover… 
Static stability predicts the continuum of interleg coordination patterns in Drosophila
A simple stability-based modeling approach can explain why walking insects use different leg coordination patterns in a speed-dependent way.
Inter-leg coordination in the control of walking speed in Drosophila
The data suggest that Drosophila controls its walking speed almost exclusively via step frequency, and suggests a systematic speed dependence of inter-leg movement patterns, which implies that inter- leg coordination is flexible.
Kinematics and motor activity during tethered walking and turning in the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis
The distinct inter-joint and inter-leg coordination between tethered turning and walking provides a good model to further study the neural control of changing locomotion patterns.
Kinematic Responses to Changes in Walking Orientation and Gravitational Load in Drosophila melanogaster
The kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking are measured and functional chordotonal organs are found required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects.
Leg Coordination during Walking in Insects
Common principles in inter-leg coordination where found, like similarities between different organisms and segment specific or state dependent modifications in the walking system can be interpreted as evidence for a highly adaptive and modular design of the underlying neuronal structures.
Speed-dependent interplay between local pattern-generating activity and sensory signals during walking in Drosophila
Leg amputation in fruit flies reveals that during walking inter-leg coordination strength increases with walking speed, thereby facilitating strict coordination during fast locomotion.
Saccadic body turns in walking Drosophila
The analysis shows that Drosophila does not turn its head relative to its body when turning during walking, which contrasts with the head saccades reported for e.g., blowflies and honeybees.
Straight walking and turning on a slippery surface
A slippery surface setup is used to understand the role the local neuronal processing in the thoracic ganglia plays in the ability of the animal to show turning movements and suggests that the single stepping legs perform given motor programs on the slippery surface in a fashion that is highly independent not only of mechanical coupling between but also of the presence of the other legs.
Speed-dependent interaction of sensory signals and local, pattern-generating activity during walking in Drosophila
Oscillation periods, phases, and absolute inter-segmental intervals of movements in the intact legs and single leg stumps were quantified in tethered flies walking on top of an air-cushioned ball to investigate the control mechanisms of walking in Drosophila.


A behavioural analysis of the temporal organisation of walking movements in the 1st instar and adult stick insect (Carausius morosus)
  • D. Graham
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
A model based on inhibitory interactions between oscillators representing leg activity has been constructed to explain the step pattern changes in both modes of walking and the temporal asymmetry of the adult pattern and appears to be applicable to the walking behaviour of other insects including the cockroach.
It was suggested that the specialization of the metathoracic legs in the locust gave rise to most of the variability in leg movements and that the relative independence of the prothoracIC legs reflects an exploratory role in walking.
Organization of a complex movement: fixed and variable components of the cockroach escape behavior
Cockroaches that are walking at the moment they begin their escape reverse those ongoing leg movements that are contrary to escape movements, and possibilities for neurobiological follow-up of certain of the findings presented here are addressed.
Visual control of locomotion in the walking fruitflyDrosophila
To investigate the optomotor leg responses of Drosophila melanogaster the free walking fly, the stimulus consists of continuous pattern movement in the equatorial zone of the visual field and leg responses show that the orientation of the movement detecting systems is independent of their position in the eye, and is invariant to the direction and velocity of the stimulus.
The Co-Ordination of Insect Movements I The Walking Movements of Insects
It is concluded that insects are the end-product of a process of limb reduction among terrestrial Arthropoda in which p/r may be increased to nearly one and yet the animal retains static stability throughout the whole cycle, impossible with fewer than six legs.
Pattern and Control of Walking in Insects
Simulation of a model for the coordination of leg movement in free walking insects
Simulation of the behaviour of a model proposed to explain certain asymmetries in the free walking step patterns of adult stick insects suggests that there are subtle differences in the walking system at these two stages of growth.
The Control of Walking in Orthoptera: II. Motor Neurone Activity in Normal Free-Walking Animals
It is suggested that the timing of SETi activity is only important at low walking speeds, and that at high speeds it simply provides a return force for the flexor muscle.
The Locomotion of the Cockroach Periplaneta Americana
The locomotion of free, intact cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, was studied with the aid of high speed motion pictures to show how a single mechanism could account for walking in each.
Recurrent inversion of visual orientation in the walking fly,Drosophila melanogaster
The recurrent transition between competitive objects counteracts the accumulation of spontaneous preferences, and is likely to explain the apparent lack of pattern-discrimination under operant and non-operant conditions of continued free choice in Drosophila.