Cooperative interactions of PTEN deficiency and RAS activation in melanoma metastasis

  title={Cooperative interactions of PTEN deficiency and RAS activation in melanoma metastasis},
  author={Cristina Carneiro Nogueira and Kwan-Hyun Kim and Hyeran Sung and Kim H. T. Paraiso and J. G. Dannenberg and Marcus C. Bosenberg and Lynda Chin and Minjung Kim},
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT pathways are frequently co-activated in melanoma through overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases, mutations in their signaling surrogates, such as RAS and BRAF, or loss of negative regulators such as PTEN. As RAS can be a positive upstream regulator of PI3-K, it has been proposed that the loss of PTEN and the activation of RAS are redundant events in melanoma pathogenesis. Here, in genetically engineered mouse models of cutaneous melanomas, we… CONTINUE READING

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