Cooperation and conflict in host–manipulating parasites

  title={Cooperation and conflict in host–manipulating parasites},
  author={Sam P. Brown},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences},
  pages={1899 - 1904}
  • S. Brown
  • Published 22 September 1999
  • Biology
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
The existence of adaptive host manipulation by parasites has received increasing empirical support in recent years. Here I develop an optimality model of the extent of host manipulation, incorporating within-host group size, relatedness and a range of realistic cost–benefit functions. The model highlights the cooperative nature of host manipulation, and the potential for cheating this entails. When relatedness in parasite groups is minimal, manipulation is suppressed, but not eradicated… 
Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms
The actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission is discussed, and the potential for future research is emphasized.
The evolution of host manipulation by parasites: a game theory analysis
It is shown that intrahost competition will decrease the investment that a parasite should make in manipulation but that manipulation can, under some circumstances, be a profitable strategy even in the presence of non-manipulating competitors.
Cooperation or Conflict: Host Manipulation in Multiple Infections
Experimental studies of both cooperation and conflict among parasites, especially studies investigating the interaction between different parasite species using the same host are urgently needed.
Manipulation of host behaviour by parasites: a weakening paradigm?
  • R. Poulin
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
The relationship between the magnitude of published quantitative estimates of parasite–induced changes in host behaviour and year of publication from the time the adaptive host manipulation hypothesis was first proposed is examined.
Parasitic Manipulations of the Host Phenotype: Effects in Internal and External Environments
The review gives insight into the most common types of manipulative strategies and discusses (i) the evolutionary advantages of these strategies, (ii) why some strategies are more common than others, and (iii) how manipulative strategies change in the course of parasite growth and development.
Positive density-dependent growth supports costs sharing hypothesis and population density sensing in a manipulative parasite
The hypothesis that macroparasites can adjust their growth rate and manipulation investment according to cost sharing level and infrapopulation size supports the hypothesis that parasitic manipulations should be costly.
Why multiple infections favour virulent parasites
Focusing on chronic dimorphic infections caused by horizontally-transmitted microparasites, it is shown that within-host growth traits are under strong selective pressure and when small mutations affect them, most of the surviving mutants are more virulent than their resident.
A lack of crowding? Body size does not decrease with density for two behavior-manipulating parasites.
The findings suggest that some behavior-manipulating parasites suffer no reduction in size, and may even benefit when "crowded" by conspecifics.
The Role of Parasitism in Adaptive Radiations—When Might Parasites Promote and When Might They Constrain Ecological Speciation?
It is concluded that future studies should consider host populations at variable stages of the speciation process, and explore recurrent patterns of parasitism and resistance that could pinpoint the role of parasites in imposing the divergent selection that initiates ecological speciation.


The evolution of parasite manipulation of host behaviour: a theoretical analysis
This evolutionary analysis indicates that ecological and life history variables may have played an important role in the evolution of manipulation of host behaviour by parasites.
Models of Parasite Virulence
  • S. Frank
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1996
Standard models of parasite virulence are summarized and connected to diverse topics, such as the virulence of bacterial plasmids, the evolution of genomes, and the processes that influence conflict and cooperation among the earliest replicators near the origin of life.
Exploitation of manipulators: ‘hitch-hiking’ as a parasite transmission strategy
The models suggest that the prevalence or abundance of manipulative parasites will be a key determinant of whether hitch-hiking can be an advantageous option for other parasites.
Foundations of Social Evolution
This is a treatment of one of the central problems in evolutionary biology, the evolution of social co-operation and conflict. Steven Frank tackles the problem with a combination of approaches: game
Modelling patterns of parasite aggregation in natural populations: trichostrongylid nematode-ruminant interactions as a case study.
The analysis and empirical data indicate that k tracks the increase and subsequent decline in the mean burden with host age, which is related to the degree of heterogeneity in the impact of host immunity or parasite-induced mortality required to shorten the tail of the parasite distribution in older animals.
How to make a kin selection model.
This work proposes a "direct fitness" formulation of inclusive fitness which often has a more straightforward derivation and illustrates this technique first in a homogeneous population, with examples of group competition and partial dispersal behaviour, and then in a class-structured population,with examples of sex allocation and altruism between age classes.
Host Behavior Modification: An Evolutionary Perspective
Unraveling the physiological mechanisms of host behavior modification and an evolutionary perspective on these behaviors is developing are developing.
Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites: From individuals to communities
This work examines the origins of parasitism and complex life cycles, strategies of host exploitation, and interactions between parasite species and component communities and parasite faunas.