Cooling Bose-Einstein Condensates Below 500 Picokelvin

@article{Leanhardt2003CoolingBC,
  title={Cooling Bose-Einstein Condensates Below 500 Picokelvin},
  author={Aaron E. Leanhardt and Thomas A. Pasquini and Michele Saba and André Schirotzek and Y. Shin and David Kielpinski and David E. Pritchard and Wolfgang Ketterle},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={301},
  pages={1513 - 1515}
}
Spin-polarized gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates were confined by a combination of gravitational and magnetic forces. The partially condensed atomic vapors were adiabatically decompressed by weakening the gravito-magnetic trap to a mean frequency of 1hertz, then evaporatively reduced in size to 2500 atoms. This lowered the peak condensate density to 5 × 1010 atoms per cubic centimeter and cooled the entire cloud in all three dimensions to a kinetic temperature of 450 ± 80 picokelvin. Such spin… 

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