Convincing State-Builders? Disaggregating Internal Legitimacy in Abkhazia

  title={Convincing State-Builders? Disaggregating Internal Legitimacy in Abkhazia},
  author={Kristin M. Bakke and John O’Loughlin and Gerard Toal and Michael D. Ward},
  journal={International Studies Quarterly},
De facto states, functional on the ground but unrecognized by most states, have long been black boxes for systematic empirical research. This study investigates de facto states’ internal legitimacy—people's confidence in the entity itself, the regime, and institutions. While internal legitimacy is important for any state, it is particularly important for de facto states, whose lack of external legitimacy has made internal legitimacy integral to their quest for recognition. We propose that the… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

De Facto States and Democracy: The Case of Abkhazia
Abstract De-facto states constitute an interesting and important anomaly in the international system of sovereign states. No matter how successful and efficient in the administration of theirExpand
The diplomacy of post-Soviet de facto states: ontological security under stigma
Why do post-Soviet de facto states (such as Abkhazia and South Ossetia) regularly interact with remote Pacific islands or Latin American countries, even though they are not bound by any meaningfulExpand
Degrees of legitimacy: Ensuring internal and external support in the absence of recognition
Abstract Unrecognised states, such as Abkhazia, Nagorno Karabakh, Northern Cyprus, Somaliland and Transnistria are denied (widespread) international recognition, and have therefore tended to beExpand
Constructing legitimacy without legality in long term exile: Comparing Western Sahara and Tibet
While scholars agree that political legitimacy, or the legitimacy to rule, is sought by governing authorities, the concept itself is often considered to be problematically vague. This articleExpand
What is the effect of non-recognition? The external relations of de facto states in the post-Soviet space
In a context where sovereignty is structurally challenged, sub-state actors increasingly engage in international activities, and the dynamics of global capitalism transcend borders, how much doesExpand
Interpreting Non-recognition in de facto states engagement : the case of Abkhazia's foreign relations
This research looks at how Abkhazia’s political elites and foreign policy decision-makers in Russia, the EU, and the US, which engage with Abkhazia, interpret non-recognition and how thisExpand
The Improvised State: Sovereignty, Performance and Agency in Dayton Bosnia
Description: Over the past 15 years, Bosnia and Herzegovina has served as a laboratory of techniques to re–establish state sovereignty and promote democracy. The post–conflict intervention in BosniaExpand
Somaliland: Dynamics of internal legitimacy and (lack of) external sovereignty
Abstract Despite its strong legal and historical claims to sovereignty, the Republic of Somaliland remains entirely unrecognized by the international community more than 20 years after it proclaimedExpand
Resourcing de facto jurisdictions: A theoretical perspective on cases in the South Caucasus
Political economy is a consistently under-researched aspect of unrecognized statehood. Countering homogenizing accounts centred on illegality, this article argues for a comparative analysis in orderExpand
The Hobbesian Bargain: State-Building, Fiscal Capacity, and Preferences for Redistribution in Fragile States
What explains citizens' preferences for redistribution in fragile states? We examine fiscal capacity in the context of modern state-building in Afghanistan. As emergent governments struggle to supplyExpand


The Sustainability and Future of Unrecognized Quasi-States
Scattered around the world are a number of states and statelets that have declared independence but are not recognized by other states. These political entities are referred to by various names: ‘deExpand
Who is entitled to 'earn sovereignty'?: Legitimacy and regime support in Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh
Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh are internationally unrecognised political entities, or so-called de facto states, that have emerged as a result of the incomplete and contested state-formation of theirExpand
Yielding to the sons of the soil: Abkhazian democracy and the marginalization of the Armenian vote
Abstract Among the post-Soviet de facto states, Abkhazia is unique in that the secessionists pursued self-determination in the name of a minority group. Today the ethnic Abkhaz enjoy a virtualExpand
Inside Abkhazia: Survey of Attitudes in a De Facto State
Testing claims about a region often glibly described by outsiders, thus checking assumptions upon which policy recommendations are based, this article examines residents' attitudes in the de factoExpand
Building Legitimate States After Civil Wars
1 Angola, Cambodia, Liberia, Somalia are all generally regarded not only as failed states, but as state-building failures. The list could easily be extended. In each instance, an internationalExpand
The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries
  • M. Seligson
  • Political Science
  • The Journal of Politics
  • 2002
Economists have long warned about the pernicious impacts of corruption, arguing that it increases transaction costs, reduces investment incentives, and ultimately results in reduced economic growth.Expand
Parent States versus Secessionist Entities: Measuring Political Legitimacy in Cyprus, Moldova and Bosnia & Hercegovina
Abstract This article questions whether a relatively strong conviction that legitimacy conveys nothing more than acceptance derived from legal recognition. Therefore several indices are constructedExpand
The Determinants of State Legitimacy: Results for 72 Countries
This article examines a range of potential causal variables of state legitimacy using a globally representative set of 72 countries accounting for 83 percent of the world’s population. Major theoriesExpand
The Benefits of Ethnic War: Understanding Eurasia's Unrecognized States
Within international relations, discussions about how civil wars end have focused mainly on the qualities of the belligerents (ethnicity, commitment to the cause) or on the strategic environment ofExpand
Para-States, Quasi-States, and Black Spots: Perhaps Not States, But Not “Ungoverned Territories,” Either
Editor's Note: In a world interconnected technologically and economically, old problems, including crime and terrorism, have often assumed new and more threatening forms for which internationalExpand