Converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure.

@article{Nicholls1988ConvertingEI,
  title={Converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure.},
  author={M. G. Nicholls and Hamid Ikram and M. A. Fitzpatrick and Ian George Crozier},
  journal={European heart journal},
  year={1988},
  volume={9 Suppl H},
  pages={77-83}
}
The renin-angiotensin system is activated in heart failure in proportion to the severity of the haemodynamic derangement and to diuretic dose. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce circulating levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone and, in some patients, plasma noradrenaline, vasopressin and cortisol. Typically there is potassium retention and a minor increase in plasma potassium, but cumulative sodium balance may increase or decrease depending on pretreatment fluid and… CONTINUE READING
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