Conversion of oxybenzone sunscreen to phototoxic glucoside conjugates by sea anemones and corals

  title={Conversion of oxybenzone sunscreen to phototoxic glucoside conjugates by sea anemones and corals},
  author={Djordje Vuckovic and Amanda I Tinoco and Lorraine Ling and Christian Renicke and John R. Pringle and William A. Mitch},
  pages={644 - 648}
The reported toxicity of oxybenzone-based sunscreens to corals has raised concerns about the impacts of ecotourist-shed sunscreens on corals already weakened by global stressors. However, oxybenzone’s toxicity mechanism(s) are not understood, hampering development of safer sunscreens. We found that oxybenzone caused high mortality of a sea anemone under simulated sunlight including ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290 to 370 nanometers). Although oxybenzone itself protected against UV-induced photo… 
Quantum mechanical study of interactions between sunscreen ingredients and nucleotide bases
Interactions between the popular sunscreen ingredients oxybenzone and homosalate and DNA bases have been studied using density functional theory and ab initio methods. Low-energy structures for each
Sunscreens threaten coral survival.
Oxybenzone-based sunscreens are increasing the mortality rates of stressed corals.


Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands
Oxybenzone poses a hazard to coral reef conservation and threatens the resiliency of coral reefs to climate change, and is a skeletal endocrine disruptor to corals.
Benzophenone photosensitized DNA damage.
The results show that irradiation of the BP chromophore in the presence of DNA or its components leads to nucleobase oxidations, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation, single strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, or abasic sites.
Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters
  • K. M. Parker, W. Mitch
  • Environmental Science, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2016
It is demonstrated that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of seawater halides by excited-state triplet dissolved organic matter chromophores, an •OH-independent pathway, which significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.
Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching
Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching.
The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis
The assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome is reported on, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis.
Evidence that glucose is the major transferred metabolite in dinoflagellate–cnidarian symbiosis
It is suggested that glucose is the major translocated metabolite in dinoflagellate–cnidarian symbiosis and that the release of glycerol from isolated algae may be part of a stress response.