Conversion of cannabidiol to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in artificial gastric juice, and their pharmacological effects in mice

@article{Watanabe2007ConversionOC,
  title={Conversion of cannabidiol to $\Delta$9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in artificial gastric juice, and their pharmacological effects in mice},
  author={Kazuhito Watanabe and Yuka Itokawa and Satoshi Yamaori and Tatsuya Funahashi and Toshiyuki Kimura and Toshiyuki Kaji and Noriyuki Usami and Ikuo Yamamoto},
  journal={Forensic Toxicology},
  year={2007},
  volume={25},
  pages={16-21}
}
Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, was found to be converted to 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (9α-OH-HHC) and 8-hydroxy-iso-hexahydrocannabinol (8-OH-iso-HHC) together with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a psychoactive cannabinoid, and cannabinol in artificial gastric juice. These cannabinoids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) by comparison with the spectral data of the authentic compounds. Pharmacological effects of 9α-OH-HHC and 8-OH-iso-HHC in… 

A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans

The typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials, and seems to be an in vitro artifact.

Will tetrahydrocannabinol be formed from cannabidiol in gastric fluid? An in vivo experiment.

It can be concluded that negative consequences for participants of a drug testing program due to a conversion of CBD into THC in human gastric fluid appear unlikely, and there is a reasonable risk for consumers of CBD products being tested positive for THC or THC metabolites.

Are adverse effects of cannabidiol (CBD) products caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contamination?

It may be assumed that the adverse effects of some commercial CBD products are based on a low-dose effect of Δ 9-THC and not due to effects of CBD itself, as all of the products in the sample collection showed various non-conformities to European food law.

Cannabidiol Does Not Convert to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in an In Vivo Animal Model

Findings of the present study show that orally dosed CBD, yielding clinically relevant plasma exposures, does not convert to THC in the minipig, a species predictive of human GI tract function.

Are adverse effects of cannabidiol (CBD) products caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contamination?

It may be assumed that the adverse effects of some commercial CBD products are based on a low-dose effect of THC and not due to effects of CBD itself, as all of the products in the sample collection showed various non-conformities to European food law such as unsafe THC levels, full-spectrum hemp extracts as non- approved novel food ingredients, non-approved health claims, and deficits in mandatory food labelling requirements.

Conversion of Cannabidiol (CBD) into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Including Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): A Controversy in the Scientific Literature

Most studies suggest that CBD is not converted to psychotropic THC under in vivo conditions, Nevertheless, it is certain that CBD degrades to psychotrop products in acidic environments, and the storage stability of commercial formulations requires more attention in the future.

Urinary Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their Metabolites Following Oral and Vaporized CBD and Vaporized CBD-Dominant Cannabis Administration.

Data show that absorption/elimination of CBD is impacted by drug formulation, route of administration, and gastric contents, and it is possible that hemp products containing low amounts of ∆9-THC may produce a cannabis-positive urine drug test.

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its major metabolite Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid as 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

It is suggested that Δ (9) -THC can abrogate atherosclerosis via direct inhibition of 15-LOX, and that Δ(9)-THC-11-oic acid is shown to be an "active metabolite" of Δ( 9) - THC in this case.

Human brain microsomes: their abilities to metabolize tetrahydrocannabinols and cannabinol

Although the primary metabolic pathways of the THCs and CBN in brain microsome are different from those in liver microsomes for other mammalian species, those in human brainmicrosomes were similar to those inhuman liver microSomes.
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