Convergent evolution of eye ultrastructure and divergent evolution of vision‐mediated predatory behaviour in jumping spiders

  title={Convergent evolution of eye ultrastructure and divergent evolution of vision‐mediated predatory behaviour in jumping spiders},
  author={Kathy Su and Rudolf Meier and Robert R. Jackson and Duane P. Harland and D. Li},
  journal={Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
  • K. Su, R. Meier, D. Li
  • Published 1 July 2007
  • Biology
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology
All jumping spiders have unique, complex eyes with exceptional spatial acuity and some of the most elaborate vision‐guided predatory strategies ever documented for any animal of their size. However, it is only recently that phylogenetic techniques have been used to reconstruct the relationships and key evolutionary events within the Salticidae. Here, we used data for 35 species and six genes (4.8 kb) for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships between Spartaeinae, Lyssomaninae and… 
Prey classification by an araneophagic ant‐like jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)
Myrmarachne melanotarsa is the first non-spartaeine and also the first ant-like salticid for which araneophagy has been demonstrated and, furthermore, discriminates between different types of spiders.
The evolution of jumping spiders ( Araneae : Salticidae ) : a review
The evolution of the family Salticidae (jumping spiders) has always puzzled arachnologists, but with modern DNA and morphological analysis, a pattern is starting to emerge, and major directions taken by the evolving salticids are outlined.
Biology of Stenolemus giraffa (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a web invading, araneophagic assassin bug from Australia
Findings from this study add to growing evidence that araneophagy is prevalent in the emesine genus Stenolemus and that considerable variation in predatory tactics occur within this genus.
Dim-light vision in jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae): identification of prey and rivals
Evaluation of the visual identification of rivals and prey by two salticid spider species under progressively lower light levels reveals a visual capacity comparable to that of nocturnal spiders.
Inter-population variation and phenotypic plasticity in kairomone use by a poly-specialist spider-eating predator
Previous research on Cyrba algerina (Araneae, Salticidae) has shown this jumping spider expresses predatory specialisation with respect to spiders as prey as well as inter-population variation in
The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae)
This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes – wingless and myosin heavy chain – which confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes.
Spider Behaviour: Flexibility in the foraging strategies of spiders
There are striking examples of predatory specialisation from spiders, particularly among the Salticidae, suggesting that assumptions about adaptive trade-offs, in which the small nervous systems of spiders might constrain their cognitive or sensory abilities, need to be carefully evaluated.
One of the most interesting findings is that males of the Singapore A. tenuipes males often perform prolonged display posturing even when their anterior-median eyes are not aligned with the female, suggesting that there is unusually strong reliance on chemical cues by this species during courtship.


The biology of Portia fimbriata, a web‐building jumping spider (Araneae, Salticidae) from Queensland: utilization of webs and predatory versatility
It is proposed that the pervasive use of webs by Portia is a primary character conserved from ancestral salticids, and that in the evolution of the family, invasion of contiguous webs could have led to selection for a sophisticated visual system that assisted in the localization of their residents.
Predatory behavior of jumping spiders.
Salticids, the largest family of spiders, have unique eyes, acute vision, and elaborate vision-mediated predatory behavior, which is more pronounced than in any other spider group. Diverse predatory
Morphogenesis of a tiered principal retina and the evolution of jumping spiders
It is shown that the post-embryonic morphogenesis of a principal retina may explain how it evolved and has significant implications for the evolution of the Salticidae.
The biology of Euryattus sp. indet., a web‐building jumping spider (Araneae, Salticidae) from Queensland: utilization of silk, predatory behaviour and intraspecific interactions
The biology of an aberrant saltioid spider, Euryattus Thorell sp. indet., is described from observations in a Queensland rain forest and the laboratory. Pronounced morphological and behavioural
A review of the ethology of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae)
Five areas of salticid ethology are reviewed: predatory strategies, courtship, maternal behaviour, silk utilisation and mimicry, which suggests that colour is important in intraspecific communication in this family.
Predatory and silk utilisation behaviour of Gelotia sp. indet. (Araneae: Salticidae: Spartaeinae), a web-invading aggressive mimic from Sri Lanka
During cursorial predation, Gelotia, like all spartaeines studied, often omitted elements which are usually present in the predatory sequences of typical salticids.
Prey-holding abilities of the nests and webs of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae)
Three characteristics of the Silk devices of 12 species of Salticidae and three species of spiders from conventional web-building families were investigated: macrostructure; prey-holding ability; and the structure of the silk itself, as revealed by SEM.
The biology of Simaetha paetula and S. thoracica, web‐building jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae) from Queensland: co‐habitation with social spiders, utilization of silk, predatory behaviour and intraspecific interactions
The biology of two aberrant species of salticid spiders is described from observations in tropical Queensland and in the laboratory, and the hypothesis that cannibalism reduction has been important in the evolution of display behaviour is not supported.
The principal eyes of a jumping spider have a telephoto component
This work has found that in Portia fimbriata (Doleschall) and some other species, this pit has a refracting interface that increases the focal length of the eye beyond its axial length, thereby magnifying the retinal image and increasing visual resolving power above that possible with only a corneal lens.
Predatory versatility and intraspecific interactions of Cyrba algerina and Cyrba ocellata, web-invading spartaeine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)
C. algerina and C. ocellata have similar behaviour during intraspecific interactions and these species’ displays have basic similarities to displays of other salticids except that quiver swim waving is a distinctive display unique to Cyrba.