Convergent evolution of anti-bat sounds

  title={Convergent evolution of anti-bat sounds},
  author={Aaron J. Corcoran and Nickolay I. Hristov},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters—echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths—a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Using scanning electron microscopy and high… 

Convergent Evolution of Wingbeat-Powered Anti-Bat Ultrasound in the Microlepidoptera

It is demonstrated that wingbeat-powered ultrasound production, likely providing an anti-bat function, appears to indeed be spread widely in the microlepidoptera; showing that acoustically active structures (aeroelastic tymbals, ATs) have evolved in at least three, and likely four different regions of the wing.

Moth hearing and sound communication

Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds “whispered” by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent.

Survival Sounds in Insects: Diversity, Function, and Evolution

Sonic defenses in insects are poorly understood and it is recommended that future investigations focus on testing hypotheses explaining the functions and evolution of these survival sounds using predator-prey experiments and comparative phylogenetics.

Deaf moths employ acoustic Müllerian mimicry against bats using wingbeat-powered tymbals

It is revealed how Yponomeuta moths acquire sophisticated acoustic protection despite being deaf themselves and hence unable to respond to bat attacks, and is concluded that both moth taxa are mutual Müllerian acoustic mimics.

Early erratic flight response of the lucerne moth to the quiet echolocation calls of distant bats

The crambid moth Nomophila nearctica never performed passive dives in response to frequent and loud ultrasonic pulses of >60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) that simulated the attacking echolocation call sequence of the predominant sympatric insectivorous bat Eptesicus fuscus, but rather turned away or flew erratically, regardless of the temporal structure of the stimulus.

Anti-Bat Ultrasound Production in Moths is Globally and Phylogenetically Widespread

A long-term study across the globe, assaying moth response to playback of bat echolocation, finds preliminary evidence of independent origins of sonar jamming in at least six subfamilies, and suggests that jamming and warning are not mutually exclusive strategies.

Hearing for Defense

The appearance of echolocating bats approximately 65 million years ago presented a life-or-death challenge to nocturnally active insects, particularly those that fly at night. In response,

Characteristics of tiger moth (Erebidae: Arctiinae) anti-bat sounds can be predicted from tymbal morphology

The predictive model allows the click rates of moths to be estimated using preserved material (e.g., from museums) in cases where live specimens are unavailable and has the potential to greatly accelerate the understanding of the distribution of sound production and acoustic anti-bat strategies employed by tiger moths.

Simple ears - flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

It is argued that Galleriinae which show negative and positive phonotaxis, are an interesting model species for future electrophysiological studies of the auditory pathway and multimodal sensory integration, and so are ideally suited for the study of the evolution of behavioral mechanisms given a few receptors.



The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach

These findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats.

Acoustic mimicry in a predator–prey interaction

Visualizing bat–moth interactions with high-speed, infrared videography, empirical evidence for acoustic mimicry in the ultrasonic warning sounds that tiger moths produce in response to echolocating bats is provided.

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race

It is found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry, and the sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Sound strategies: the 65-million-year-old battle between bats and insects.

In an exciting new twist, researchers are taking the technologies developed in the laboratory back into the field, where they are poised to appreciate the full richness of this remarkable predator-prey interaction.

Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: frequency, duty cycle and frequency modulation, and modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal).

How Some Insects Detect and Avoid Being Eaten by Bats: Tactics and Countertactics of Prey and Predator

The aim with this review is to present the complex interactions between echolocating bats and insects with bat-detecting ears and show how these interactions may be advantageous for predator or prey.

Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences, and preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism.

'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

  • Conner
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1999
The weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths.

To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

It was concluded that females of this moth do not distinguish between male songs and bat calls, supporting the idea that acoustic communication in this moth evolved through a sensory exploitation process.

Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning

These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate, suggesting that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes.