# Convergence of the Abelian sandpile

@article{Pegden2011ConvergenceOT, title={Convergence of the Abelian sandpile}, author={Wesley Pegden and Charles K. Smart}, journal={Duke Mathematical Journal}, year={2011}, volume={162}, pages={627-642} }

The Abelian sandpile growth model is a diffusion process for configurations of chips placed on vertices of the integer lattice $\mathbb{Z}^d$, in which sites with at least 2d chips {\em topple}, distributing 1 chip to each of their neighbors in the lattice, until no more topplings are possible. From an initial configuration consisting of $n$ chips placed at a single vertex, the rescaled stable configuration seems to converge to a particular fractal pattern as $n\to \infty$. However, little has…

## 43 Citations

Apollonian structure in the Abelian sandpile

- Geology
- 2012

The Abelian sandpile process evolves configurations of chips on the integer lattice by toppling any vertex with at least 4 chips, distributing one of its chips to each of its 4 neighbors. When begun…

Tropical curves in sandpile models

- Mathematics
- 2015

A sandpile is a cellular automata on a subgraph $\Omega_h$ of ${h}\mathbb Z^2$ which evolves by the toppling rule: if the number of grains at a vertex is at least four, then it sends one grain to…

Sandpiles on the Square Lattice

- MathematicsCommunications in Mathematical Physics
- 2019

AbstractWe give a non-trivial upper bound for the critical density when stabilizing i.i.d. distributed sandpiles on the lattice $${\mathbb{Z}^2}$$Z2 . We also determine the asymptotic spectral gap,…

Laplacian growth and sandpiles on the Sierpiński gasket: limit shape universality and exact solutions

- Mathematics
- 2018

We establish quantitative spherical shape theorems for rotor-router aggregation and abelian sandpile growth on the graphical Sierpinski gasket ($SG$) when particles are launched from the corner…

Perturbed Divisible Sandpiles and Quadrature Surfaces

- MathematicsPotential Analysis
- 2018

The main purpose of the present paper is to establish a link between quadrature surfaces (potential theoretic concept) and sandpile dynamics (Laplacian growth models). For this aim, we introduce a…

Sandpile dynamics on periodic tiling graphs

- Mathematics
- 2019

Sandpile dynamics are considered on graphs constructed from periodic plane and space tilings by assigning a growing piece of the tiling either torus or open boundary conditions. A method of computing…

Harmonic dynamics of the abelian sandpile

- MathematicsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 2019

It is demonstrated that the self-similar fractal structures arising in the abelian sandpile show smooth dynamics under harmonic fields, similar to sand dunes which travel, transform, and merge, depending on the wind, and that the existence of several scaling limits for infinite domains is conjecture.

Cut-off for sandpiles on tiling graphs

- Mathematics
- 2019

Sandpile dynamics are considered on graphs constructed from periodic plane and space tilings by assigning a growing piece of the tiling either torus or open boundary conditions. A general method of…

Discrete Balayage and Boundary Sandpile

- MathematicsJournal d'Analyse Mathématique
- 2019

We introduce a new lattice growth model, which we call the boundary sandpile. The model amounts to potential-theoretic redistribution of a given initial mass on ℤd (d ≥ 2) onto the boundary of an (a…

Laplacian growth, sandpiles, and scaling limits

- Mathematics
- 2016

Laplacian growth is the study of interfaces that move in proportion to harmonic measure. Physically, it arises in fluid flow and electrical problems involving a moving boundary. We survey progress…

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